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Cold War In Latin America
Transcript of Cold War In Latin America
7. Monroe Doctrine
9. Roosevelt Corollary
10. Good Neighbor Policy
16. El Salvador Argentina 1. 1.Peron basically blamed the poor condition of his country's economy on the US. When Peron was taken down by the Argentine people, the US seemed to have accomplished democracy in Argentina. In case of war in Argentina, it was the US's duty to defend Argentina. The new leader in Argentina decided to take a group of useless islands by the name of the Falkland Islands from Britain to gain national pride. The US urged Britain and Argentina to make peace but instead Britain decided to fight back and embarrass the poor Argentine. The Argentine people didn’t take the defeat all good and blamed the US for interfering in the war by helping out the British when indeed they didn’t.
2. The Cold War was profitable and allowed the government to access control over the social welfare of the public and economy. If Argentina did choose to side with the other side, then their economy would have plummeted and would have the U.S. controlling the economic aspects of Latin America. Also under their ideology containing strong Nazi and Fascist ties, if that was severed than the whole foreign policy of Argentina would collapse as the government would fall under Juan Domingo. By: Kayla T.
Raquel A. Cold War In Latin America/ Caribbean Nicaragua 1.Nicaragua began experiencing civil war in 1979, between the communist rebel Sandinista, and the oppositional Contras, the two nations saw opportunity to clash. The US, concerned with the communist Sandinista, funded the anti-communist traditional counterrevolutions, while the Soviet Union continued to fund the Sandinista.
2. The Communist Sandinista took over Anastasio Somoza dictatorship rule. At first, the U.S. and Russia helped the Sandinista and their leader, Daniel Ortega. Once the Sandinista began helping other Marxist rebels in El Salvador though, the U.S. turned against them. To help the El Salvadoran government and get rid of the Sandinista, the U.S. supported and sent money to the Nicaraguan Contras. Since the Contras were anti-Communists, as the U.S. was, the U.S. found the Contras to be an efficient way to suppress the Communist Sandinista. After a while, the Contras and the Sandinista came to a ceasefire in 1988.
3. Nicaragua's government has not improved much since the Cold War conflict in the 1980's. Their democracy is still fragile and unstable. Their judicial system is vulnerable to corruption, and Nicaragua's economy is one of the poorest in the hemisphere. There is also a high crime rate there. Despite the dilemmas, it offers several opportunities for tourists. Cuba 1. In 1959, Castro overthrew the Batista dictatorship, which had been supported by the U.S.
2. Castro nationalized the property of U.S. Corporations. U.S. commenced an economic boycott of Cuba.
3. Castro began receiving aid from the Soviets.
4. In 1961, Cuban emigres assisted the CIA, attempted to invade Cuba. Expected uprising against Castro failed to occur. U.S. refused to intervene openly. The Bay of Pigs invasion was easily put down.
5. In October, 1962, the Cuban missile crisis threatened the world with nuclear destruction, Soviets withdrew their missiles from Cuba in spite of Castro's protests. Bolivia 1. When the United States learned that Che was in Bolivia they decided that it would be their best chance to kill someone that they conceived to be representative of the Cuban communist revolution. In order to better prepare the Bolivian army to capture Che the United States sent down a battalion of Green Berets to train some of the Bolivian army. The segment that the Green Berets trained became known as the Rangers. In all three battalions of Rangers were created. In October of 1967 the Rangers succeeded in their mission and captured, then executed, Che.
2. 1.Bolivia remains the poorest country in South America, in part, due to high corruption levels; furthermore, critics often point out the imperialist role of foreign powers in the country since the "discovery of America". The country is rich, however, in natural resources and has been called a "donkey sitting on a gold mine" because of this. Apart of Potosi's famous mines, which were known by the Incas and later exploited by the Spaniards, Bolivia owns the second largest natural gas field in South America after Venezuela. Jamaica Chile Monroe Doctrine 1. The Monroe Doctrine was a policy the United States implemented in order to protect Latin America from being colonized.
2. During the Cold War the doctrine was implemented in Latin America because after the Cuban Revolution established a communist government with ties to the Soviet Union to prevent the further spreading of the Soviet Communistic beliefs.This caused the United States to continuously provide financial and military aid to the countries of Latin America, which led to internal dissatisfaction in the United States. Mexico 1.Mexico is a hotspot because it was one of the small countries in which the United States and Soviet Union were fighting through. But unlike the other countries that were involved Mexico was not really impacted by the Cold War and didn’t experience proxy wars and revolutions like the others did.
2. During this time Mexico did not experience any coups or anti-communist military dictatorship, no Marxist revolutions and no civil conflicts. Mexico had a very strong relationship with the United States. Mexicans viewed the Cold War not as a principled crusade, but as an example of aggression by imperialist states whose financial and military power allowed them to dominate less developed countries.
3. Communism occupied a prominent position in the struggle between Mexican youth and their government. By the late 1960s communism remained at the forefront of Mexican political discourse, but still often in fashion. For example, in 1968 both the student protest movement and the administration of President Gustavo Diaz Ordaz routinely invoked “the people” when asserting their revolutionary and nationalistic credentials. As the youth protest against Diaz Ordaz and his government grew larger and more bitter, the president worked harder to discredit it in the eyes of both foreign and domestic audiences. His key strategy for doing so was to claim communist conspiracy and foreign infiltration of the student organizations. Roosevelt Corollary 1. The Roosevelt Corollary is a corollary (1904) to the Monroe Doctrine, asserting that the U.S. might intervene in the affairs of an American republic threatened with seizure or intervention by a European country.
2. During the Cold War the Doctrine gave the United States permission to invade and defend the countries of South America and the Caribbean if Russia should have intervened. U.S. Presidents cited the Roosevelt Corollary as justification for U.S. intervention in Cuba, Nicaragua, Haiti and the Dominican Republic.
3. The Roosevelt Corollary is not really used today. Many see it as only being relevant in the sense that it is a road map for what NOT to do. It's the US taking for itself the right to impinge on the sovereignty of other independent nations, under the guise of "keeping order". Good Neighbor Policy 1. The Good Neighbor Policy is a diplomatic policy in which the U.S., first presented in 1933 by President Roosevelt, for the encouragement of friendly relations and mutual defense among the nations of the Western Hemisphere.
2. Its main principle was that of non-intervention and non-interference in the domestic affairs of Latin America. It also reinforced the idea that the United States would be a “good neighbor” and engage in reciprocal exchanges with Latin American countries. Overall, the Roosevelt administration expected that this new policy would create new economic opportunities in the form of reciprocal trade agreements and reassert the influence of the United States in Latin America, however many Latin American governments were not convinced. The era of the Good Neighbor Policy ended with the threat of the Cold War in 1945.
3. It is still in place today. An example of this would be the United States helping Mexico after the Cold War to battle the corruption and drug cartels in the country. Peru 1. Peru was a hotspot in the Cold War because it was a communist country which was going through its struggle of having the country remain communist, because the United States at the time was trying to prevent Communism from continuing.
2. During the Cold War the United States did invade Peru in order to prevent the democratic government from going down. They also did it to prevent the coup from happening. In this case the United States has chosen to act in concert with other Latin American governments, often though not exclusively through the Organization of American States. The United States did not seek to end General Velasco’s government in Peru, although it developed the closest military relationship with the Soviet Union that any other Latin American government.
3. Today Peru is a presidential democratic country, with a multi-party system. Peruvian foreign relations have always been dominated by border conflicts, but today its only dispute is its maritime limits with Chile. Haiti 1. Haiti was a hotspot during the Cold War because it was used as a military base of operations in case battle erupted between The United States, Russia, and Cuba.
2. Haiti and the United States relationship included interventions to restore order and the backing of dictators during the Cold War. The Clinton administration sought the U.N. Security Council’s prior authorization to its military occupation of Haiti— the first time ever that a U.S. government requested prior multilateral endorsement for its use of military force in the Americas. The United States backed both dictators, worrying that without US support during the Cold War Haiti would fall under the influence of the Soviet Union or nearby communist Cuba.
3. The Cold War did not hurt the relationship between the United States and Haiti. Today they are still close and the United States still bails out Haiti in times of need. Haiti government wise is not stable but the United States is helping for that to happen. Haiti is safe to be called a democratic country, although it may still suffer from corruption, because it has free elections. Panama 1.The U.S. Army, U.S. Air Force, U.S. Navy, and U.S. Marines participated in Operation Just Cause. It was the invasion of Panama by the United States in December 1989. It occurred during the administration of U.S. President George H. W. Bush, and ten years after the Torrijos–Carter Treaties were ratified to transfer control of the Panama Canal from the United States to Panama by January 1, 2000.
2. There had been numerous clashes between U.S. and Panamanian forces; one U.S. Marine had been killed a few days earlier defending democracy and human rights in Panama. Panama had become a center for drug money laundering and a transit point for drug trafficking to the U.S. and Europe. Protecting the integrity of the Torrijos–Carter Treaties, members of Congress and others in the U.S. political establishment claimed that Noriega threatened the neutrality of the Panama Canal and that the U.S. had the right under the treaties to intervene militarily to protect the canal.
3. Today Panama and the United States have moved on from the minor dispute between the two countries. They are allies today despite the former animosities. Guatemala 1. 1954 Guatemalan coup d’état was the CIA covert operation that deposed President Jacobo Árbenz Guzmán, with Operation PBSUCCESS. This is was a paramilitary invasion by an anti-Communist “army of liberation”. In the early 1950s, the politically liberal, elected Árbenz Government had affected the socio-economics of Decree 900 , the national agrarian-reform expropriation, for peasant use and ownership, of unused prime-farmlands that Guatemalan and multinational corporations had set aside as reserved business assets.
2. The Decree 900 land reform especially threatened the agricultural monopoly of the United Fruit Company (UFC), the American multinational corporation that owned 42% of the arable land of Guatemala. In response to the expropriation of prime-farmland assets, the UFC asked the US Governments of presidents Harry Truman and Dwight Eisenhower to act diplomatically, economically, and militarily against Guatemalan President Árbenz Guzmán, which, in 1954, resulted in the Guatemalan coup d’état. Honduras 1. After WWII, the US realized the importance of establishing stronger ties with Honduras for the fear that Honduras, and the rest of Latin America would fall to communism. This was first seen when the US and Honduras signed a Lend Lease agreement. The funds granted from this were used to improve Honduras's aircraft, engine parts and support equipment. In 1954, the US signed a military agreement with Honduras and from then on, the US consistently provided military assistance to Honduras.
2. By the end of the 60's US military funding had increased considerably. Clearly, from this, it is evident that Honduras was of much importance to the US, not only economically but politically as well – if Honduras fell to communism, all of Central America would most certainly follow suit.
3. When one looks at Honduras today, it remains the second poorest nation in Central America. It is still plagued with poverty which raises the question whether all this aid was efficiently spent. Furthermore, although the US did supply Honduras with aid, it created a sense of Honduran dependency on the US which has proven to be detrimental to the growth and stability of Honduras. El Salvador 1. A civil war broke out in the 1970s between the military and right wing terrorists on the one and, and a communist led guerrilla insurgency with popular support.
2. In spite of the assassination of 4 American church women by soldiers, the U.S. continued to train and support the army throughout the decade of the 1980s.
3. The army was responsible for the massacre of countless unarmed civilians, including 6 Jesuit priests.
4. After tens of thousands of death, the civil war was brought to an end with the help of UN supervised elections in the early 1990s. Used Links http://ejas.revues.org/7527
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The Cold War
www.wcfia.harvard.edu/sites/default/files/WCFIA_99-01.pdf 1. Chile was a hotspot for the Cold War because it served as a place where another Cold War proxy war took place. As a result of the United States wanting to curb communism, they helped Chileans to get rid of the dictator they had. They did this so they could get the government who looks to be more susceptible in converting the country to Communism. They then hoped to modernize and infuse democracy in the country.
2. A socialist government, led by Allende, was elected in 1971.
3. During the Nixon Administration, the U.S. used its influences with international banks to undermine the Chilean economy. The CIA encouraged and influenced a coup by the Chilean army led by General Pinochet.
4. The Pinochet dictatorship killed several hundred dissidents and ruled the nation for a decade. Economic recovery took place with the help of the U.S. Independent Jamaica adopted Western models for internal development and external perspective. Jamaican leaders, recognizing the strong United States disapproval of Soviet influence in Cuba and British Guiana (present-day Guyana), rejected the Soviet alternative. As British influence in Jamaica eroded rapidly following independence, the United States began paying closer attention to political events on the island. Beginning with the seizure of power in Cuba by Fidel Castro, Jamaica's proximity to both Cuba and the United States raised Jamaica's profile in American foreign policy circles. Growing United States economic interest in Jamaica paralleled the former's increasing political interest. Jamaica sided frequently with the United States in its United Nations (UN) voting on cold war issues during the first few years of independence. The nation became visibly less pro-West in its UN voting beginning in 1965-66, however. Jamaica moved out of the United States orbit for the first time when it abstained on the 1971 vote to admit China into the UN.