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Smooth, Cardiac, and Skeletal Muscle

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by

Kat Welsh

on 7 November 2012

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Transcript of Smooth, Cardiac, and Skeletal Muscle

Smooth, Cardiac, and
Skeletal Muscle

by: Kat, Erin, and Sarah Smooth Cardiac Skeletal Works Cited
Found in:
-lower part of the oesophagus
-stomach and intestines
-the walls of the bladder
-the uterus
-various ducts of glands
-the walls of blood vessels -attached to bones (some facial muscles are attached instead to skin
-voluntary, contractions often caused by reflexes and are not willed movements; it is the only muscle type subject to conscious control http://www.botany.uwc.ac.za/sci_ed/grade10/mammal/muscle.htm
http://www.uic.edu/classes/phyb/phyb516/smoothmuscleu3.htm
http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/smooth%20muscle Characteristics:

Thin-elongated muscle cells, fibres

Fibres are pointed at their ends and each has a single, large, oval nucleus.

Each cell is filled with a specialized cytoplasm, sarcoplasm, and is surrounded by a thin cell
membrane, the sarcolemma. -involuntary tissue(not controlled by the brain) Functions:
-Controls slow, involuntary movements
~such as the contraction of the smooth muscle tissue in the walls of the stomach and intestines~
-The muscle of the arteries contracts and relaxes
~to regulate the blood pressure and the flow of blood~ - found only along the walls of the heart
- under involuntary control
- main function- to pump blood through the heart
-Single Unit
~gathered into dense sheets or bands

~fibers run roughly parallel

~fibers are densely and irregularly packed together

~fibers have interconnecting bridged

~fibers have connections
=>the plasma membranes of two neighboring fibers form gap junctions (these act as low resistance pathway for the rapid spread of electrical signals throughout the tissue) On average...
- cardiac muscle pumps 70 times per minute
and 100,000 times per day
- pumps 1,900 gallons of blood around the body per day -Multi-Unit:
~have no interconnecting bridges
~Mingled with connective tissue fibers 2 Different Types: structure and appearance
- branching chains of cells
- striations
-ininucleate
- intercalated disks in between myocytes (cells)
- surrounded by a cell membrane (sarcolemma) other facts
-rhythmic speed of contraction
-slow speed of contraction Since cardiac muscle relies on oxygen, it is resistant to fatigue. However when it is oxygen deprived, it can cause serious problems such as a heart attack. How it Works:
- Cardiac muscle cells are filled with mitochondria that help with aerobic respiration. (cardiac muscle is fueled by oxygen)
- Supply of oxygen allows fibers in pacemaker cells to contract simultaneously and send ions across gap junctions in intercalated disks to the ventricles
-This electrical current causes contraction of the heart which sends blood out to the body. composed of two types of cells
- cardiomyocytes (basic cardiac cell)
-pacemaker cells (only cell that in body that does not need electrical signals from the brain; conducts electricity by changing their charge from positive to negative back to positive) Each cell has many myofibrils, which lie parallel to one another in the direction of the long axis of the cell.They are not arranged in a definite striped (striated) patternFibres interlace to form sheets or layers of muscle tissue rather than bundles Quiz 1) What type(s) of muscle are striated? 2) What type(s) of muscle are involuntary? 4) What is the only cell in the body that can conduct electrical signals on its own? 3) What unit type of smooth muscle has connecting bridges? 5) Give an example of a convergent muscle. http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-the-cardiac-muscle.htm http://www.livestrong.com/article/148604-characteristics-of-cardiac-muscles/ http://www.livestrong.com/article/109777-features-cardiac-muscle/?utm_source=undefined_R1
the textbook
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Skeletal_striated_muscle
http://www.pennmedicine.org/encyclopedia/em_DisplayAnimation.aspx?gcid=000113&ptid=17
http://science.howstuffworks.com/environmental/life/human-biology/muscle2.htm Characteristics:
-very long, cylindrical muscle strands that appear to be striped because the myofibrils have alternating light and dark bands that run the length of the muscles (that's why they're called striated muscles)
-multinucleate cells Structure: Types:
parallel: fascicles run parallel to the direction of the muscle so that the whole muscle functions the same way that an individual fiber does. form different shapes (flat band (aponeurose), spindle (tendon), and belly muscles)- biceps
congergent: fan out from a common point of attachment; cover a broad surface and allow for more versatile types of movement- pectoral muscles
pennate: at least one tendon runs through the body of the muscle and the fascicles form an oblique angle to the tendon(s); tendons in this muscle don't move as far as do those in parallel muscles, but they generate more tension because they contain more muscle fibers- rectus femoris
sphincter: fibers arranged concentrically around an opening or recess in the body; often found at entrances/exits of internal/external passageways- orbicularis oris Functions:
producing movement (contraction): the movement of the human body relies on the contraction of skeletal muscle
(isotonic or same-force versus isometric or same-length contraction)
maintaining posture: oppose the force of gravity and constantly adjust to help maintain proper posture
joint stabilization
generating heat:heat is a by-product of muscle activity. ATP used to power muscle contraction which releases energy as heat that helps us maintain bosy temperature even if your muscle is at rest, it has fibers that
are constantly contracting on a level that can't be seen.
the continuous state op partial contractions is called
muscle tone and is the result of systematic
stimulation by the somatic NS in different motor units. cramps and fatigue

glycolysis: muscles need oxygen; pyruvic acid and energy
is captured in ATP bonds
lack of oxygen causes fatigue, lactic acid fermentation
(cramps), or spasms fun facts
-the eyelid is the fastest contracting
muscle in the body
-it takes 14 facial muscles to smile
- there are about 640 individually named
skeletal muscles
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