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SOAN101 What does it mean to be modern?
Transcript of SOAN101 What does it mean to be modern?
How have gender relations, marriage and courtship changed for the Gebusi? Why? What new forms of male dominance have emerged?
What experiences do women have in the market? Why do they engage in market transactions?
What aspirations do school children have?
GDP per capita Purchasing Power Parity
Uneven global income distribution & uneven domestic income distribution
GDP of PNG-- $15.29 Billion
--US-- $16.8 Trillion
PNG: 32% under poverty line
globally: 17%; over 1 billion people
--40-50% under $2/day
International Monetary Fund & World Bank
The Oil & Debt Crisis
1970s & 1980s
-increase in world price in oil
-First World went into recession
-Third World also affected by raise in energy costs & reduced demand for products
Role of the State vs
Role of the Market
neo-liberalism won-- philosophy of free market, no state intervention
WB- Structural Adjustment Loans
IMF- Structural Adjustment Programs
1. reduction of public spending (social programs, food subsidies)
2. currency devaluation
3. privatization of state enterprises (industry, water, electricity, phones)
4. reduction of wages to attract foreign investors
5. reduce export prices
6. trade liberalization (eliminate restrictions on imports)
-food prices went up, wages went down
-energy, water, etc left to market pricing
-reduced purchasing power
--working in Free Trade Zones (FTZ)
--import material/equipment tariff free for processing, manufacturing
--North American Free Trade Agreement (1994)
--Eliminate barriers in trading and investment
What experiences do the Maquiladoras have in the Free Trade Zones? How do they challenge their working conditions?
Why doesn't the Mexican government respond by enforcing labor and environmental laws, setting higher minimum wages?
--minimum wage -- 37.40p/day = $3.95 (2000) = weekly 280.46p
--top of pay scale: 550p/week
-- rent/week: 177p --milk 1/2 gallon: 18.90p
--electricity: 52p --tomatoes (2lbs): 9.37p
--gas: 31p --tortillas (2lbs): 4.53p
--water: 28p --chicken: 21.20p
--transportation: 92p --rice (2lbs): 6.69p
--eggs (17): 17.36p
Debates: creation of new middle-class or unfair labor?