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Brazil's Road to Independence

Mr. Russell HOA Year 2 First Quarter Project
by

Hannah Kim

on 18 October 2012

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Transcript of Brazil's Road to Independence

The Road to Independence Brazil Colonization 1789 First Attempt 1820 Second Attempt Pedro was abdicated for political incompatibilities monarchy to republic 1985 Brazil today Apr. 22, 1500 1680's 1530-1700 Pedro Alvarez Cabral 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas 1520's 1549 the sugarcane
cycle Tomé de Sousa Early 1800's Napoleon 1776 Independence for America
decline of gold mining
failed
lacked:
leader
plan
common goals
Tiradentes' death celebrated as a national holiday Constituent Assembly (Cortes) meets in Portugal wants: 1. King to come back to Portugal
2. Brazil become just a province
3. Pedro to go to Portugal returned, left son as regent
Portuguese officers forced him to dismiss most loyal ministers Pedro becomes just a governor dissatisfied citizens Liberals VS. Bonifacians Joaquim Gonçalves Ledo supported by free masons
wanted a constituent assembly for Brazil José Bonifácio de Andrada became a father-like figure to Pedro


wanted Pedro to become sole King to avoid anarchy BOTH wanted a keep Brazil united with Portugal as a sovereign monarchy Pedro's decisions... 1. Stay in Brazil

2. Dismiss Portuguese soldiers in Brazil

3. Elected Deputies
“Friends, the Portuguese Cortes want to enslave and pursue us. From today on our relations are broken. No ties unite us anymore” and continued after he pulled out his blue-white armband that symbolized Portugal: “Armbands off, soldiers. Hail to the independence, to freedom and to the separation of Brazil”. He unsheathed his sword affirming that "For my blood, my honor, my God, I swear to give Brazil freedom" and cried out: “Independence or death!” left to São Paulo to assure Brazilian loyalty returned to find that Cortes had taken remaining power September 22, 1822 official separation letter Became Dom Pedro I, Constitutional Emperor and Perpetual Defender of Brazil called self "Prince Regent" crowned on December 1, 1822 Feb 1822-MAr 1824 war between Portugal and Brazil Portugal Brazil had formal military

lacked men and means

on defense mostly militias
used foreign immigrants and slaves

navy led by Thomas Cochrane
sabotages by Portuguese crew members
1823-reformed
cleared coast, isolated army estimated 5,700-6,200 casualties Brazil wins! left for Portugal
left 5 year old son as regent 1831 1831-1840 ruled by regents-political unrest 1840 declared of age, ruled until 1889 1889-1930 1930-1945 1889 Pedro overthrown Pedro II at height of popularity most didn't want change
didn't care what happened
backed by former slave owners 1893-1926 civilian and military movements Getúlio Vargas assumed power created a dictatorship
ruled for 15 years
allied side in WWII
overthrown
committed suicide early 50's late 50's - early 60's 1961-1964 economic boom successful warfare techniques
concentrated on finding strategies to fight domestic revolutionary warfare
led to "New Professionalism" economic and social reforms
failed to address issues
didn't satisfy rich or poor

1964 Military intervention in politics
ruined economy
thousands deported, murdered, tortured, imprisoned
official censorship return to civilian rule
Tancredo Neves indirectly elected
José Sarney president Dilma Rousseff current president current problem: wealth distribution Question 1 Question 2 Question 3 Do you think it was easier for Brazil to gain independence than other South American countries? Were Pedro's reasons for his change of loyalty legitimate? Do you like Pedro? Why did Brazil want a united monarchy with Portugal? Aug 19, 1825 - officially recognized by Portugal basically a dictatorship capital moved to Brasília
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