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Morphine

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by

Ruvini Amarasekera

on 20 February 2014

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Transcript of Morphine

What is Morphine?
Morphine
Today, the most efficient synthesis method is used:
Synthesis
there are nine different syntheses of Morphine
the most well-known are by Marshall D. Gates (1952) and Kenner C. Rice (1980)
Medical Use
Drug Abuse
The History of Morphine
Other Opiates
codeine and thebaine are drugs which have similar properties and side effects as morphine
Opium Drugs
The Chemistry of Morphine
Morphine is a benzylisoquinoline alkaloid.
Properties
morphine (hydrated and anhydrous) is not very soluable in water and lipids
By: Ruvini Amarasekera, Renee McDonald, and Daniela Lopez
Impact on Society
known as the "cleaner version" of heroin
beween 1805 and 1816, Friedrich Wilhelm Serturner, a German pharmaceutical assistant, managed to isolate morphine from crude opium
What is a Schedule II Drug?
Since then, morphine has been used for pain relief and for recreational use
i.e. morphine, codeine, oxycodone, and opium extract
benzylisoquinoline- structural backbone
alkaloid- any nitrogenous organic compound that originates from plants; alkaloids have severe psychological effects on humans
Most common form is: Morphine Sulfate
Molecular Formula:
(C17H19NO3)2 • H2SO4 • 5H2O
Morphine is a multiple ringed structure.
it has an aromatic benzene ring, and four other various rings
three of these rings are in the same plane, other two are at right angles
this ring system is quite rigid
Some other features of the Morphine molecule:
ether linkage between Carbon 4 and Carbon 5
unsaturation between Carbon 7 and Carbon 8
an amine functional group at position 17
Gates:
Rice:
Major brands include Kapanol, Avinza, Kadian, and Oramorph
The Side Effects
Morphine's recreational uses
top euphoric drug; gives users the ultimate high
Morphine has a wide array of side effects.
the opium poppy has about 26 other alkaloids yet these have little or no effect on humans (ie. noscapine)
codeine
thebaine
Heroin
prodrug of morphine; when ingested, heroin becomes metabolized into morphine
has similar chemical properties/ side effects as morphine- euphoria, cannot think straight, severe addiction
memory loss, confusion, headaches, fatigue, inability to think straight/make decisions
slowed heart rate
low blood pressure, lowered blood temperature
compromised physical performance
constipation, nausea, vomiting
reduced respiration rate
OVERDOSE can lead to asphyxia (abnormal breathing) or DEATH!
It may take up to 72 hours for the drug to completely pass through the body.
however, morphine salts (ie. morphine sulfate) is 300x more soluable in water

morphine has a pH of about 8.5, while morphine salts are more acidic
morphine crystals are small, white, rhombic prisms
odorless, tastes bitter
melting point is 225 degrees Celcius
molecular weight is 285.33766 [g/mol]
Morphine is very important in health care.
Cancer
Surgery
Relieve Pain
War
"Soldier's Disease"
derived from the opium poppy
very addictive
medicinal drug that eases pain, changes mood, and triggers sleep
opium drugs were commonly used as far back as the Ancient Greeks
in the 1800s, the First Opium War began due to high demand
in 1970, the Controlled Substances Act classified morphine as a Schedule II drug due to its addictive nature
highly addictive drug
accepted medical use with strong restrictions
may generate psychological/physical dependance
many patients become addicted
destructive to all body systems
taken orally, smoked, snorted, or injected
Oxycodone, hydromorphone, and hydrocodone are derived from opiates
He named Morphine after the Greek God of Sleep!
Attempts for morphine Synthesis
Full transcript