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Cultural Level of Figueroa's Framework
Transcript of Cultural Level of Figueroa's Framework
The cultural level of Figueroa's framework includes a society's
values, beliefs and attitudes, which are the product of factors that
include the social group's history, culture and ethnic backgroud.
So it is society's values, beliefs and attitudes that
shape and influence equity in and access to sport
(and thus, your participation!).
Factors influencing society and you inlcude:
Australia's sporting history
Australia's sporting culture is heavily influenced
by our history as a former British colony. Early settlers from Britain and Ireland brought with them attitudes and beleifs about sport, and they also brought with them games that were popular in Britain.
Because perspiring, physical contact and competition were not ladylike behaviour, women's physical recreation activities and opportunities were limited. Gentle exercises was seen to benefit women's health and help them to develop other feminine qualities such as graceful movement.
Sport has long been a central feature of
Australian culture - so much so that enthusiasm
for sport is often described as a characteristic
of being Australian.
Australia's sporting identity is closely linked to the cultural level of
Figueroa's framework.Our cultural attitudes and beliefs affect the sports
we choose to play. For example, Australian's sporting history and culture
has led to the high status of sports in which we excel, such as swimming,
cricket, AFL, and rugby league, while other sports such as orienteering,
squash and badminton have been marginalised.
Socialisation in the process
by which individual beliefs, opinions
and values are shaped by society.
These can ifluence whether you participate in sport, your choice of sport and your level of achievement.
Gender roles and stereotypes
Stereotypes are opinions about a person's race, nationality
or gender that assume that all people who belong to a particular category or type of person will think and behave in the same way.
Gender stereotypes have long been an issue in sport. Sport requires participants to be competitive, muscular, powerful and strong - qualities that are largely associated with the male gender.
On the other hand, female gender stereotypes expect women to be quiet, passive and nuturing; these are not qualities ideally suited to sport.
Although our society no longer accepts stereotypical beleifs about women in sport, some lingering prejudices remain. E.g. women who actively participate in sport have often been regarded as masculine and unattractive as their bodies become more muscular and lost their femininity.
Similarly, men who participate in sport that requires more feminine qualities, such as gracefulness, are subjected to scrutiny and criticism. Eg. this is evident in the sport of dancing - dancing is an athletic and powerful sport that requires incredible physical fitness.
Within our culture though, men who dance
are labelled 'sissy'. Boys and men are discouraged from taking up the sport for fear of being considered feminine.
Hegemonic: means 'ruling' - often discussed when discussing how one group maintains authority over another.
Our society has traditionally been one of hegemonic masculinty. In other words, men have held the power and authority to influence society and set the rules that govern behaviour, including the behaviour of women.
Sport reinforces hegemonic masculinity by celebrating stereotypically masculine activities and attributes, and restricting the behaviour of women.
Hegemonic masculinity is reinforced by practices such as:
providing less medica coverage for women's sports than for men's
offering less prize money for women's sports
identifying women's competition by their gender to differentiate them from men's (eg. WNBL and NBL).
Britain brought with them the beliefs that participating in sport fostered the ideals of English gentlemen. Boys were encouraged to play team games to learn the masculine qualities of leadership and courage. On the other hand, physical activity for girls was promoted largely for health reasons.
Although physical activity was seen as a masculine pursuit, women did particpate in a range of sports. If they did play, however, they did so without any display of physical exertion.
The Australian public has a culture of recognising and supporting winners. Our achievements in sport have helped shape the value Australians now place on sport - Cadel Evens?
The factors influencing socialisation can include
family, peers, schools, governments, media, religion,
ethnic backgroud, gender, socio-econmic status and age.
However, at this level, the main socialising influences are
society's beliefs about gender roles and ethnic identity.
Ethnic background is another socialisaing factor influencing what sports people choose to play and their level of participation.
For example, Australian Rules Football and Rugby League are both very important to Indigenous Australians and their communities. The success of teams in the regional competition and having local boys targeted by AFL and Rugby League teams assist in bonding local communities and establishing an identity for Indigenous Australians.