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Writing & Printing

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Edward Kane

on 10 September 2014

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Transcript of Writing & Printing

Four basic printmaking processes:
1. Intaglio—etching, engraving, drypoint

2. Lithographic—planographic printing on limestone slabs based on the antipathy of oil based grease pencil and water.

3. Relief/xylographic—woodcut and linoleum block printing

4. Screen—silk screen printmaking
The printing surface is a mesh stretched across a wooden frame.
A stencil is applied to the mesh to seal the non-printing areas.
Ink is scraped through the mesh to produce an image.

Printmaking Techniques
Alphabets • Writing • Printing
History of Graphic Design
The 18th century brought about the ultimate refinement in page design and typography, especially embodied in Giambattista Bodoni's work.

Giambattista Bodoni (1740-1813) was an Italian engraver, publisher, printer and typographer of high repute remembered for designing a typeface which is now called Bodoni. The beautiful font Bodoni is one we use even today.

Giambattista Bodoni achieved an unprecedented level of technical refinement, allowing him to faithfully reproduce letterforms with very thin hairlines, in contrast to the thicker lines.

Masters of type of the Enlightenment
Baskerville Font
Caslon typefaces were influenced by Dutch types then common in England. His typefaces influenced John Baskerville and are thus the progenitors of Transitional types, which in turn led to Modern types.

Caslon typefaces were very popular and used for many important printed works, including the first printed version of the Declaration of Independence.

They fell out of favour in the century after his death, but were revived in the 1840s, and Caslon-inspired typefaces are still widely used today.
William Caslon
Examples of the Roman du Roi type style

Roman du Roi

Philippe Grandjean (1666-1714) was a French type engraver notable for his series of Roman and italic types known as Romain du Roi (French: King's Roman).

King Louis XIV, in 1692, directed that a typeface be designed at any necessary expense for the exclusive use of the Royal printer.

The design was carried out by Grandjean together with a group of mathematicians, philosophers,
and others.

Philippe Grandjean

Binding and pages of an Aldine book

Aldus Manutius

New, humanist writings required creating a new type of fonts—more secular, more legible.
The need for the condensed Gothic typefaces was also becoming obsolete. Page designs were rapidly becoming lighter, with more white space.
The problem for type Renaissance designers was, however, that ancient Romans had only uppercase or capital letters.
While adopting their designs for capitals, Renaissance typographers had to spend more time working on lowercase lettershapes.
As a basis, they took carolingian scripts that were common in early Middle age (before the blackletter had become dominant style across the Western Europe), but changed them significantly to match the Roman uppercase letters and to better adopt to Gutenberg's printing technology.

Renaissance masters of type
In 1543 Copernicus placed the sun at the center of the universe and the planets in orbital order around it.

Galileo's observed the heavens through a telescope and recorded his findings in Starry Messenger (1610) for which he was denounced by the pope and lived under house arrest for the rest of his life.

Tycho Brahe gave an accurate estimate of planetary positions and refuted the Aristotelian theory that placed the planets within crystal spheres. Kepler was the first astronomer to suggest that planetary orbits were elliptical.

Science & the Italian Renaissance
Albrecht Dürer, drawings from 1497 to 1525

The Art of Dürer

Dürer is important for the history of graphic design in that he spent considerable time on the geometry of letters as well as book design.

Albrecht Dürer & Book Design

Melencholia I (1514)
In this work appears the Dürer's magic square.

Albrecht Dürer

Saint Jerome in his Study (1514)

Albrecht Dürer

He also created individual prints such as:
Knight, Death, and the Devil (1513),

Albrecht Dürer

The Little Passion (1510–1511)

Albrecht Dürer

He is best known for his woodcuts in series such as:
the Apocalypse (1498)

Albrecht Dürer

The Machine that Made Us part 5
The Machine that Made us part 1
Cast letterform is released from the mold, cleaned of superfluous metal appendages and leveled for use.
The mixture he concocted for casting type was a combination of lead, tin and antimony.
Gutenberg first printed papal indulgences (written dispensation for sins) sold by the church.
His best known work is the Bible, which he printed under some financial stress.
Gutenberg's System of
Casting Metal Type
Gothic was the culminating artistic expression of the middle ages from 1200—1500.
The term Gothic originated with the Italians who used it to refer to rude or barbaric cultures north of the Italian Alps.
Gothic spirit took hold in France, Germany and England.
The spirit of the Gothic style manifested itself in unhindered upward striving: the vertical supplanted horizontals as the dominant line in architecture; the pointed arch replaced the round arch of the Romans.

Blackletter: The Gothic Hands
12—15th C.
The majority of surviving manuscripts are from the Middle Ages.
The majority of these manuscripts are of a religious nature. However, especially from 13th century onward, an increasing number of secular texts were illuminated.
Most medieval manuscripts, illuminated or not, were written on parchment (most commonly calf, sheep, or goat skin) or vellum (calf skin). Beginning in the late Middle Ages manuscripts began to be produced on paper.
The Book of Kells, Ireland, A.D. 800
The Art of the Book

The earliest surviving illuminated manuscripts are from AD 400 to 600, primarily produced in Ireland and Italy.
The meaning of these works lies in their art history value and their value as a link of literacy.
The monastic scribes of late antiquity preserved the entire content of western heritage literature from Greece and Rome.
The Book of Kells, Ireland, A.D. 800

The Art of the Book

The Codex is a handwritten book, in general, one produced from Late Antiquity through the Middle Ages. The codex was a vast improvement upon the scroll, which it gradually replaced as the written medium.
The codex could be opened flat at any page, allowing easier reading; and the codex, protected within its durable covers, was more compact and easier to transport.

The Roman Codex

As copied from the Greek style, the first Roman stone carved letters were of equal width and were without serifs.
Rudimentary word spacing utilized dots to divide words.

Early Roman Lapidary 2nd Century B.C.E.

The Cherokee syllabary uses a symbol or letter for part of a word or syllable

Cherokee Syllabary
Types of Hieroglyphic Writing

Over 5,000 years ago, the Sumerians of the Tigris Euphrates valley, invented one of the world's earliest systems of writing.
They needed a means of accounting for the receipt and distribution of resources.
Their society had become a complex environment which required attentive management in order to sustain a large, agriculture-based civilization.
The accounting system the people of ancient Iraq developed comprised both a method of recording language in writing, and a method of authenticating and authorizing records and transactions.

Cuneiform Writing Mesopotamia
Ideograms Represent Concepts
An ideogram is a graphical symbol that represents an idea
Examples of ideograph include way-finding signage such as:
Airports and where many people may not be familiar with the language
Arabic numerals and mathematical notation, which are used worldwide

The symbol for create combines several root words to convey a concept
Chinese Ideogram for "Create"
Book designs by Giambattista Bodoni

Giambattista Bodoni
Giambattista Bodoni
The intellectual leaders of the 18th century regarded themselves as a courageous elite who would purposely lead the world into progress from a long period of doubtful tradition, irrationality, superstition, and tyranny, which they imputed to the Dark Ages.
The Age of Enlightenment helped create the intellectual framework for the American and French Revolutions.
It is matched with the high baroque and classical eras in music, and the neo-classical period in the arts
Masters of the Age of Enlightenment

Baskerville's work was criticized by jealous competitors and soon fell out of favor, but since the 1920s many new fonts have been released by Linotype, Monotype, and other type foundries which are revivals of his work.
Baskerville Font
John Baskerville (1706 - 1775) was a printer in Birmingham, England, a member of the Royal Society of Arts.
Baskerville printed works for Cambridge University in 1758.
His fonts were greatly admired by Benjamin Franklin, who took the designs back to the newly-created United States, where they were adopted for most federal government publishing.

John Baskerville

Caslon (1692–1766) was an English gunsmith and designer of typographic fonts.

In 1716, being brought into contact with printers, he was induced to fit up a type foundry, largely through the encouragement of William Bowyer.

The distinction and legibility of his type secured him the patronage of the leading printers of the day in England and on the continent.

William Caslon
There are several typefaces called Garamond. Some are based on the work of Claude Garamond. The original Garamond belongs to the family of Renaissance or old style serif typefaces.
Example of Garamond Roman style font.
The font that most resembles the original Garamond is not named Garamond, but Granjon—designed by Robert Granjon, to differentiate it from the many other kinds of Garamonds.
Claude Garamond

Claude Garamond (1480–1561) was a Parisian publisher. He was the first punch cutter to work independently of printing firms.
He was one of the leading type designers of his time, and several of the typefaces he designed are still in use, notably the font Garamond, named in his honor.
Claude Garamond

Trademark of an Aldine book
Traditionally a translucent emblem produced by pressure from a raised design on the mold and visible when the sheet of paper is held to the light;
Also printed as a visible mark at the beginning of a book.
Aldine Press Trademark
This was the first italic type used in books in 1501 by the Aldine Press
Aldine Italic Font
Renaissance Typography
In 15th century, a humanist faith in classical scholarship led to the search for ancient texts that would increase current scientific knowledge.
Rediscovered were Galen's physiological and anatomical studies
Ptolemy's Geography.
Leonardo da Vinci, Nicolaus Copernicus, Galileo, Tycho Brahe, and Johannes Kepler attempted to refine earlier thought on astronomy
Science & the Italian Renaissance
Landscape & Piece of Turf

The Art of Dürer
Albrecht Dürer, drawings from 1497 to 1525

The Art of Dürer
Albrecht Dürer, drawings from 1497 to 1525

The Art of Dürer
His Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse (1497–1498)
part of the Apocalypse series.

Albrecht Dürer

Two series on the crucifixion of Christ
the Great Passion (1498–1510)

Albrecht Dürer

Albrecht Dürer (1471–1528) was a German painter, wood carver, engraver, and mathematician. Born in Nuremberg, Germany, he is best known for his woodcuts and engravings.

Albrecht Dürer
& The Illustrated Book

Printmaking Techniques

Etching press and tools for working plates

Printmaking Techniques

Four basic printmaking processes:

Printmaking Techniques
Gutenberg based his letterforms on the liturgical scripts of his era, Textura, a form of blackletter. Despite attempts to keep the process secret before long there were hundreds of presses operating throughout Germany and Italy.
It is believed that Gutenberg designed a font of 270 characters — including several variations of each letter to mimic the irregularities of handwriting. After all the whole purpose of this process was to replicate handwriting, not to create a new typeface!

Gutenberg’s Typography
Carve a letter on the end of a steel bar, the punch
That letterform is struck into a softer metal bar made of copper to create a mold or matrix
The matrix is placed into a type mold. Molten metal is poured into the opening to fill the mold.
The type caster shakes the mold to avoid air pockets, and the letterform is almost instantly ready to remove.

Moveable Type Becomes the Most Important Event of the Millennium
Gutenberg's System of Casting Metal Type

Johann Gutenberg (c.1398–1468)15th C. | Mainz, Germany
Printing had been practiced in Korea, China and Japan for several centuries, and Europeans had printed type with carved wooden blocks for about 100 years before a modular “moveable type" system was developed in about 1450.
A number of people were working on "automated writing” but the commonly accepted originator of the modular moveable type system was Johann Gutenberg.

Seeking a Method of Mechanical Writing :
Moveable Type Becomes the Most Important
Event of the Millennium

An illuminated manuscript is a manuscript in which the text is supplemented by the addition of decoration or illustration, such as decorated initials, borders and miniatures.
The Book of Lindisfarne, England, late 7th or early 8th century

The Art of the Book

Medieval Europe:
Secluded in the scriptoria of cold monasteries, under the light of feeble oil lamps, some of the greatest book designers that ever lived, created some of the most beautiful books the world has ever seen.
The colophons of the their creations are testimony to their short lives since most of the books that they worked upon were only completed in several of their brief lifetimes, one scribe replacing the other over decades.
We call these beautiful books Illuminated Manuscripts.
The Codex Aureus, England, 9th century

The Art of the Book

Yet another Roman innovation is the institution of the baseline: In typography and penmanship, the baseline is the line upon which most letters sit and under which descenders extend.
By these additions Romans ensured that type, in opposition to the writing of the Greeks, was perfectly aligned in rows, thus greatly contributing to type aesthetics.

The Roman Alphabet

The Romans used the Greek alphabet as the basis for the uppercase alphabet that we know today and refined the art of handwriting.
• They scribed a rigid, formal script for important manuscripts and official documents and a quicker, more informal style for letters and routine types of writing.

The Romans made further important contributions to type design:
• In the Roman alphabet, serifs originated with the carving of words into stone in ancient Italy:
• Roman stonemasons started adding little hooks to the tips of letters to prevent the chisel from slipping, which turned out to be the very aesthetic as well as legibility increasing addition to type that we use to this day.

The Roman Alphabet

Early Greek was written in straight rows but read in alternate directions, one row would read left to right and then switch from right to left —the term for this is “boustrophedon” meaning “as the ox plows.”
Most scholars believe that the Greek alphabet was borrowed from the Phoenicians and passed on to the Greeks who added vowels.

Early Greek 5th Century B.C.E.

Ancient Greek Writing Example
Phoenician Writing Example
Hieroglyphs consist of three kinds of glyphs: phonetic glyphs, including single-consonant characters that functioned like an alphabet; logographs, representing morphemes; and determinatives, or ideograph, which narrowed down the meaning of a logographic or phonetic word.
As writing developed and became more widespread among the Egyptian people, simplified glyph forms developed, resulting in the hieratic (priestly) and demotic (popular) scripts, which eventually formed the basis on which the Phoenicians structured the modern alphabetic system.
The Rosetta Stone contains parallel texts in hieroglyphic and demotic writing.

The Egyptian writing system is fused with the art of relief carving— in fact the Greek translation of hieroglyphics means "sacred carving." The system was a mixture of both rebus and phonetic characters—the first link to a future alphabetic system.
Hieroglyphic images have the potential to be used in three different ways:
As ideograms, to represent the things they actually depict.
As phonograms to represent sounds that "spell out" individual words.
As determinatives to show that the signs preceding are meant as phonograms and to indicate the general idea of the word.

Hieroglyphics 2613-2160 B.C.E.
Clay, standard medium of writing, was readily available, malleable, recyclable, durable when dried in the sun or baked.
Reeds from marshes along riverbanks were used to make reed styli.
For most types of records and documents, clay was formed into rectangular tablets.
To write on clay, one would impress the tip of a reed stylus into the surface and draw it along to make each stroke of a sign. These strokes acquired a wedge-shaped appearance, having a triangular head and slender tail, so the modern discoverers of this ancient writing system called it cuneiform Latin for wedge-shaped.

Cuneiform Writing Mesopotamia
Pictographs and Ancient Sumerian Writing
The Chinese system of writing includes pictographs and ideograms and signs that indicate sounds. There are close to 50,000 signs in Chinese; however, literacy is bases on knowing some 4,000 signs. The modern signs are very similar to the ancient signs—just simplified

Pictographs in Chinese

Some researchers have noticed the resemblance of different styles of petroglyphs across different continents making it is difficult to explain the common styles.
Explanations for this similarity are mostly grounded in Jungian psychology. According to his theories it is possible that the similarity of petroglyphs from different cultures and continents is a result of the genetically inherited structure of the human brain.
Other theories suggest that petroglyphs were made by shamans in an altered state of consciousness, perhaps induced by the use of natural hallucinogens.

Cave Paintings
Cave Paintings

Cave or rock paintings are paintings painted on cave or rock walls and ceilings, usually dating to prehistoric times.
Rock paintings date from the Upper Paleolithic, 40,000 years ago.
The paintings are the work of respected elders or shamans.

Notebook pages concerning engineering projects.

The Notebooks of da Vinci
Leonardo da Vinci Florentine painter, sculptor, architect, engineer, and scholar, and one of the greatest minds of the Renaissance.

Few artists owed so little to circumstances and teachers. He was quite self-made. His work was small in bulk, and what remains may be counted on fingers of both hands.

Between 1490 and 1495 he developed his habit of recording his studies in meticulously illustrated notebooks. His work covered four main themes: painting, architecture, the elements of mechanics, and human anatomy.

The Notebooks of da Vinci
In the late 14th century Italian scholars, centered in Florence, looked back to ancient Greece and Roman as the pinnacles of intellectual achievement. Ancient manuscripts were studied, especially the writings of Plato and Aristotle.

Renaissance architecture reintroduced the Classical Greek and Roman emphasis on symmetry, proportion, geometry and the regularity of parts from the work of ancient roman architect Vitruvius.

Leonardo Da Vinci's Vitruvian Man exemplified the blend of art and science during the Renaissance — the human figure as the principal source of proportion.

Classical Antiquity & the Renaissance
Printing & The Protestant Reformation

Martin Luther nailed his 95 theses to the door of the Castle Church in Wittenberg, the public bulletin board of his day.
It all started when a Dominican friar, Johann Tetzel, was sent by the Roman Catholic Church to Germany to raise funds for the renovation of the Rome based St. Peter’s Basilica by selling indulgences in 1516. In 1517 Martin Luther wrote to the Archbishop of Mainz his intention being to merely question the nature of the church practices at the time rather than confronting the entire institution.
Gutenberg’s press enabled Luther and his followers to disseminate his message widely and quickly throughout Europe.

By A.D. 100, the Romans had developed a flourishing book industry and, as Roman handwriting continued to evolve, lower case letters and rough forms of punctuation were gradually added.

The Roman Alphabet

The square capitals in the inscription at the base of this monument are considered by many to embody the ultimate resolution of Latin letterform evolution.
They have been studied by numerous type designers for almost 20 centuries

Trajan's ColumnC. E. 117

Brush Drawn Roman Rustic Capitals

In 1906 W. R. Lethaby first theorized that the Roman serifs were derived from a stone cutter following the shape of letterforms painted with a flat, stiff brush
In 1968 Father Edward Catich, a calligrapher, stone carver and expert on the Roman alphabet, published a similar opinion in his 1968 work The Origin of the Serif, Brush Writing and Roman Letters.
“The lapidary stone-engraved letters were painted on stone with a square-cut tool and then incised” thus resulting in stroke variations and serifs.

Classical Roman Lapidary
1st Century, C.E.

Evolution of Alphabets
Alphabetic writing uses a single letter or symbol for a single sound
Words are composed from arranging the letters
Japanese Syllabary

Many of the geometric patterns which recur in petroglyphs and cave paintings have been shown to be hard-wired into the human brain; they frequently occur in visual disturbances and hallucinations brought on by drugs, migraine and other stimuli

An alternative theory, based on studies of more modern hunter-gatherer societies, is that the paintings were made by Cro-Magnon shamans.
The shaman would enter into a trance state and then paint images of their visions, perhaps with some notion of drawing power out of the cave walls themselves. This goes some way towards explaining the remoteness of some of the paintings and the variety of subject matter.
Common themes in cave paintings are large wild animals, such as bison, horses, aurochs, and deer, and tracings of human hands as well as abstract patterns.
Drawings of humans are rare and are usually schematic rather than the more naturalistic animal subjects.

Cave Paintings

The paintings were drawn with red and yellow ochre, hematite, manganese oxide and charcoal. Sometimes the silhouette of the animal was incised in the rock.
Researchers have historically interpreted the paintings as related to hunting.
As there are some clay sculptures that seem to have been the targets of spears, this may partly be true, but does not explain the pictures of beasts of prey such as the lion or the bear.

Relationship of Alphabets
The Machine that Made us part 2
The Machine that Made us part 3
The Machine that Made us part 4
Pictographs or Pictures as Words
Basic Types of Writing Systems
Single basic sound—Alphabetic system uses a unique sign for each basic sound (a letter such a the Roman alphabet)
Whole word—Pictographic system uses logograms or a written sign for an entire word (Chinese, Japanese)
Syllable (part of a word)—Syllabic system or syllabary uses distinct signs for part of a word (Cherokee syllabary)
Original drawing or pictographs evolve into simplified symbols over centuries
Sumerian cuneiform evolved from images
Aldus Manutius — famous Italian printer in the end of the XVth century.
Celebrated Aldine Press—established in Venice in 1494.
Aldus is famous for the introduction of italics designed by the punchcutter Francisco Griffo.
This press is famous also in the history of printing, for the small octovo books , similar to that of a modern paperback, which were appreciated for their portability and ease of reading.
Was educated as a humanistic scholar
became tutor to several wealthy families providing him with money to establish his print shop in Venice.
Devoted himself to publishing the Greek and Roman classics, in editions noted for their scrupulous accuracy
Aldus house in Venice
Aldus Manutius (1450–1515)
Aldus Manutius (1450–1515)
Aldus with Jean Grolier, French book collector, in the printing studio in Venice.
Circa 1500
The Dream of Poliphilus, is a romance by Francesco Colonna and a famous example of early printing.
First published in Venice in 1499 by the Aldine Press
Hypnerotomachia Poliphili presents a mysterious arcane allegory in which Poliphilo pursues his love Polia through a dreamlike landscape, and is, seemingly, at last reconciled with her by the Fountain of Venus.
Poliphili Hypnerotomachia
Poliphili Hypnerotomachia
Aldus and Italic Type
Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam (1466-1536) was staying with friends in Bologna when he wrote to Aldus on 28 October 1507, proposing the publication of his Latin translations of Euripides' Hecuba and Iphigenia in Aulis.
This edition, argued Erasmus, would give him immortality Erasmus arrived in Venice in December, and, following the publication of these translations, he decided to stay with Aldus for the next nine months. The next project was the second edition of Erasmus' Adagia, a large volume of Latin proverbs.
Erasmus of Rotterdam in Venice—1508
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