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IGCSE Physical Education - 2.2. Diet

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Rob Myatt

on 17 June 2014

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Transcript of IGCSE Physical Education - 2.2. Diet

IGCSE Physical Education

Unit 2.2.

Diet
Introduction
The body needs nutrients for three main reason:

Energy
Growth
Cell repair

Nutrients are found in food and drink products.

Proteins
Carbohydrates
Fats
Vitamins
Minerals
Water
Fibre
Carbohydrates
Why are there important?
Provides quick energy. 60% of our diet should comprise 'carbs'.

Useful source of energy in...
Running - Athletes in training will eat more 'carbs'.
Marathon runners will 'load' before the event.

Example foods:
Pasta
Cereals
Potatoes
Fats
Why are they important?
Provides slow energy. 25% of our diet should be fat.

Useful source of energy in...
Walking and low impact exercise - it produces energy too slowly to be used when working hard.

Example foods:
Oils
Dairy products (milk, butter, yogurt, cheese etc)
Nuts
Fish
FOOD SOURCES
List of vitamins, reasoning & sources.
A - for vision (sweet potato with peel, carrots, spinach)
B - for energy production and stress reduction (whole unprocessed foods)
C - to keep skin healthy (citrus fruits)
D - to help bones and teeth (Fish liver oils, fatty fish, fortified milk products, sunlight exposure)
Proteins
Why are they important?
Builds and repairs muscle.
We only need 15% of our diet to be protein.

Useful source of energy...
When training hard and recovering from injury.
‘Power’ athletes (weight lifters) will eat more protein.

Example foods:
Meat
Pulses
Fish
Vitamins
Why are they important?
Helps the body work.
Helps concentration.

Useful source for...
Staying calm, making quick decisions.

Example foods:
Fresh fruit and vegetables.
Minerals
Why are they important?
Helps release energy from food.
Helps decision making.

Useful for...
When training hard and competing

Example sources:
Fruit, vegetables and fish
Fibre
Why are they important?
Can't be digested.
Fills you up and keeps you 'regular'

Useful for...
Healthy digestion, (no constipation) helps in sport. Also helps with weight control.

Example sources:
Fresh fruit, vegetables and wholegrain cereals
Liquids
Why are they important?
Maintains fluid levels
Whenever you sweat, lost liquid needs to be replaced.

Useful for...
Preventing dehydration!

Example sources:
The tap! It's all you need most of the time.
Coca-Cola/Fanta/Aquarius BUT THESE ARE MORE THAN A LIQUID!
Daily Intake
Daily intake can vary from person to person based on two factors:

BMR (Basal Metabolic Rate)

The amount of energy it takes for your body to remain alive (even whilst sleeping/sitting).

PAL (Physical Activity Level)
The amount of energy the body needs to fuel activity.

The bigger the person, the bigger the BMR (child vs adults / male vs female).
The more active the person, the bigger the PAL (athlete vs non-athlete).

BMR + PAL = daily energy requirement

By consuming the same amount of energy as expelling for a day, the energy requirements are BALANCED.
ENERGY REQUIREMENTS
Daily Intake
BASIC INFO:

1 calorie can heat 1g of water by 1ºC.
1kcal = 1000 calories (easier form of reporting)

If a person consumes more or less energy than the body requires, the energy requirements are
UNBALANCED.

An adult male needs approximately 2500kcal / day.
An adult female needs approximately 2000kcal / day.

Consuming less kcal vs energy usage = weight loss.
Consuming more kcal vs energy usage = weight gain.

Being overweight may not be a problem! May be due to having a lot of muscle (rugby players for example), so it's not always harmful.

However, people who are overfat or obese will not be effective sportspeople.
Overweight for a female?
Anorexic BMR
vs
Normal BMR
So how do you maintain a healthy, balanced diet?
13% of Carbohydrate allowance
BUT
43.3% of Sugar allowance!

16% Carbohydrate allowance
BUT
High values in fat, sodium, and cholesterol.

19% Carbohydrate allowance
BUT
High values in fat and sodium.

Where is the nutritional specification for bones, tendons etc on the
'Balance of Good Health' chart???

HUNGRY NOW ? ? ?
Modern Methods of Reporting
In the UK, alongside the complicated nutritional information on the back of the packaging, it's now a requirement to show colour coded information on the front.
THINK OF SOME REASONS WHY THIS FORMAT IS NOW A FAVOURED FORM ON REPORTING NUTRITIONAL INFORMATION.
Carbohydrates - Simple vs Complex
SIMPLE

Provide quick release, short term energy.

Contain only 1 or 2 sugars.

Found in chocolate, sweets, fruit, juices, soda and other liquids.
COMPLEX

Provide slow release, long term energy.

Contain 3 or more sugars which form a chain.

Found in cereals, pasta, breads and a multitude of vegetables.
Polyunsaturated vs Saturated Fats
Saturated Fat

Tends to increase blood cholesterol levels.

Found in meat, dairy products, vegetable oils,

Polyunsaturated Fat

Tends to lower blood cholesterol levels

Found mostly in plant sources.
There are two types: Water-Soluble and Fat-Soluble
Water-Soluble and Fat-Soluble Vitamins
Water-Soluble

Need to be replaced on a daily basis.

e.g. Vitamin B & C.
Fat-Soluble

Can be stored in the liver.

Don't need to be replenished daily.

e.g. Vitamin A, D & E.
The body uses energy constantly from food sources which have been broken down into
GLUCOSE
.

When it doesn't require the amount of energy available at that moment, it turns the additional glucose into
GLYCOGEN
and stores it in the liver and muscles.

This energy is saved to be used at a later time. When needed, it is broken down into glucose again to be used as energy.

When these stores become full, the body turns the remaining glycogen into adipose tissue (AKA fat).
Glucose & Glycogen
Blood is directed to an area that it is needed according the the physical demands of the particular system or organ.

During digestion, blood is directed to the digestive system (e.g. stomach & intestines).

During exercise, blood is directed to the working muscles, the lungs and the heart.

If you eat immediately before exercising,
what would happen to your blood?
Blood Shunting
Full transcript