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VIKINGS

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bailey chaisson

on 8 January 2014

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Transcript of VIKINGS

VIKINGS
who were the vikings?
Who were the Vikings?
• The word Viking means one who lurks in a “Vik” which is a bay or inlet.
• the Viking age lasted for more than 300 years, from the late 8th century to the late 11th century.
• The Vikings, or Norse, were Scandinavian warriors from Norway, Denmark & Sweden who raided Northern Europe, Eastern Asia, and Eastern North America.
• By the end of the first millennium the Vikings reached North America five hundred years before Columbus
• Viking raids eventually led to trade and colonization .
• The Viking period describes a whole new age in Europe between about the mid 700 to 1150 AD.


• Archaeology provides physical evidence of their conquests, settlements, and daily life.
• Many popular ideas of Vikings are 19th century misconceptions - such as having horns on helmets.
• Few historical records and contemporary written sources exist anymore.
• Most information about the Viking period is recorded by monks in monasteries giving an account of attacks.
• The Vikings were considered heathens for their attacks on monasteries and as a result were portrayed in the worst possible way.

How do we know about the Vikings?

Viking Runes
• Vikings used symbols called 'runes' instead of an alphabet.
• Runes are made by mostly straight lines
• They carved the runes into wood or stone. It is much easier to carve straight lines than curves!

FUN TIME!
see if you can write your name using viking runes
*FUN TIME*
see if you can write your name using viking runes
Why did vikings invade Europe?
• Raids and loot were not the whole story of the Vikings.
• Coming from mountainous Scandinavia - land to farm was also a commodity, they wanted more agricultural land
• They were interested in Europe because they saw it as technologically and politically superior to their culture

What were their goals?
• Unlike many other invaders in history, the vikings weren’t trying to spread their religion –they were pagans.
• They had to find food, live off the land, and set up shop.
• They drove people out and took any valuables they had.
• Vikings targeted the church and monasteries because they were the major sources of wealth at the time.

Viking Longships
• We know about how their ships were built because Viking burials often included their valuables – some were buried with their boats
• They had swift wooden long ships, powered by sails and oars.
• The shallow drought of these ships meant they were able to travel inland by river or stream to attack before local forces could respond making them unique during that time period.


• Ships had overlapping planks, and measured between 17.5m and 36m in length.
• They were steered by a single oar mounted on the starboard side.
• Went as fast as 10 to 11 knots
• Crews of 25 to 60 were common, but larger ships could carry over a hundred people.
• Sea battles were rare. They fought close to shore.
• Ships were roped together in lines to face an enemy fleet.
. famous examples of viking ships are the the ones found in Oseberg and Gokstad which are extremely well preserved.
would you sail across an ocean in this?
Domestic Boats
• For fishing - Boats were small shallow vessels used to catch fish in rivers, lakes and fjords
• For trading - Heavy ships or knorrs were trading vessels used for carrying cargo to trade with other countries

a typical viking long houes
Battles and Tactics
• Vikings did not have an official army or navy
• Weapons training began at youth in hunting, sports, and raiding.
• The fought mostly on foot
• A line of young warriors would create a shield wall for better protection.
• They would either capture or kill their enemies Those captured would become slaves.

Conquests
• The first Viking raids were hit- and -run affairs. They sailed into a settlement, attacked and took what they could carry.
• The British Isles and the Western portions of Europe were the main targets
• During later invasions, the Vikings developed settlements.
• They conquered much of Northern England in the 9th century, and established a kingdom in Ireland.
• In return for cash Vikings negotiated peaceful coexistence and conversion to whomever they attacked. Some leaders paid ransom to Viking armies.
• In 911 AD Charles III of France gave Normandy (“French for territory of Norsemen”) to the Viking leader Rollos who became a Christian.
• Vikings adopted the French language and organized a strong state in Normandy.

√What happened to the Vikings?
• Vikings became citizens of the places they settled.
• As more became Christian, the Norse religion and culture diminished.
• Kings instituted taxes and the economy changed – Vikings changed from raiders to traders.
• European kingdoms improved defense and increased trade as a result of the Viking experience

Timeline
789 -Vikings begin their attacks on England.800
840 -Viking settlers found the city of Dublin in Ireland.
862 -Novgorod in Russia is founded by the Rus Viking, Ulrich.
866 -Danish Vikings establish a kingdom in York, England.
871 -Alfred the Great becomes king of Wessex; the Danish advance is halted in England.
872 -Harald I gains control of Norway.
886 -Alfred divides England with the Danes under the Danelaw pact.
900 -The Vikings raid along the Mediterranean coast.
911 -The Viking chief Rollo is granted land by the Franks and founds Normandy in France.
941 -Rus Vikings attack Constantinople (Istanbul).
981 -Viking leader Erik the Red discovers Greenland.
986 -Viking ships sail in Newfoundland waters.
995 -Olav I conquers Norway and proclaims it a Christian kingdom.
1000 -Christianity reaches Greenland and Iceland.
1000 -Leif Eriksson, son of Erik the Red, explores the coast of North America.
1000 -Olav I dies; Norway is ruled by the Danes
1002 -Brian Boru defeats the Norse and becomes the king of Ireland.
1010 -Viking explorer Thorfinn Karlsefni attempts to found a settlement in North America.
1013 -The Danes conquer England; Æthelred flees to Normandy.
1015 -Vikings abandon the Vinland settlement on the coast of North America.
1016 -Olav II regains Norway from the Danes.

1028 -Knut (Canute), king of England and Denmark, conquers Norway.
1042- Edward the Confessor rules England with the support of the Danes.
1066 -Harold Godwinson king of England defeats Harald Hardrada king of Norway at the Battle of Stamford Bridge
1066 -William duke of Normandy defeats the Saxon king Harold at the Battle of Hastings

Valhalla
is a majestic, enormous hall located in Asgard, ruled over by the god Odin.
Chosen by Odin, half of those who die in combat travel to Valhalla upon death, led by valkyries, while the other half go to the goddess Freyja's field Fólkvangr.
Before the hall stands the golden tree Glasir, and the hall's ceiling is thatched with golden shields. Various creatures live around Valhalla, such as the stag Eikþyrnir and the goat Heiðrún, both described as standing atop Valhalla and consuming the foliage of the tree Læraðr.
charlemange
Charlemagne waged a bloody, three-decades-long series of battles against the Saxons.
Saxons were a Germanic tribe of pagan worshippers, and earned a reputation for ruthlessness.
In 782 at the Massacre of Verden, Charlemagne reportedly ordered the slaughter of some 4,500 Saxons. He eventually forced the Saxons to convert to Christianity, and declared that anyone who didn’t get baptized or follow other Christian traditions be put to death.
Eric the Red
.Erik Thorvaldsson was known as Erik the Red.
.He is remembered in medieval and Icelandic saga sources as having founded the first Norse settlement in Greenland.
Lief the Lucky
Leif Eriksson was the son of Erik the Red, founder of the first European settlement on what is now called Greenland.
He is generally believed to be the first European to reach the North American continent, nearly four centuries years before Christopher Columbus arrived in 1492.
Canute
was a king of Denmark, England, Norway, and parts of Sweden, together often referred to as the Anglo-Scandinavian or North Sea Empire.
Cnut was of Danish and Slavic descent. His father was Sweyn Forkbeard, King of Denmark
The kingship of England lent the Danes an important link to the maritime zone between the islands of Great Britain and Ireland, where Cnut, like his father before him, had a strong interest and wielded much influence.
Brian Boru
was a king of Denmark, England, Norway, and parts of Sweden, together often referred to as the Anglo-Scandinavian or North Sea Empire.
Cnut was of Danish and Slavic descent. His father was Sweyn Forkbeard, King of Denmark
The kingship of England lent the Danes an important link to the maritime zone between the islands of Great Britain and Ireland, where Cnut, like his father before him, had a strong interest and wielded much influence.

Rollo (not the chocolate)
Rollo, baptised Robert to distinguish him from his descendants, was a Norse nobleman of Norwegian or Danish descent.
He was founder and first ruler of the Viking principality which soon became known as Normandy.
The Vikings came from Norway, Sweden and Denmark which are North of England.
Their land was not fertile. It was rocky. They found it hard to grow crops.
They found that England was rich with plentiful lands and treasures.
The climate was much warmer than where they came from, they preferred it and wanted to settle here.

Typical Viking Warrior
Vikings had no professional standing army and tactics and discipline seemed at little development. They didn’t fight in regular formations
Weapons training began at youth in hunting, sports, and raiding.
Aspiring warriors wanted armed service so they clanged to famous fighters in order to be rewarded with weapons and fame of their own. A leader needed to wage war frequently in order to keep his followers and maintain power against rivals.
In preparation for battle younger warriors would draw up a line with their shields to create a shield wall for better protection.

conquests
The first Viking raids were hit- and -run affairs. There was no coordination and long term plan behind them. The Vikings would later have more powerful forays and would have base camps where they would spend the winter.
Vikings raided the British Isles and the Western portions of the Carolingian Empire in France. They conquered much of Northern England in the 9th century, and they established a kingdom in Ireland.
In return for cash Vikings negotiated peaceful coexistence and conversion to whomever they attacked. Some leaders paid ransom to Viking armies.
In 911 AD Charles III of France gave Normandy (“French for territory of Norsemen”) to the Viking leader Rollos who became a Christian. Vikings helped adopt the French language and organized a strong state in Normandy.
During the same century a Norman adventurer Robert Guiscard created the Norman kingdom of Sicily
The Vikings who went to the British Isles and continental Europe, were mostly from Denmark and Norway.
The Swedes went beyond the Baltic away from Christian europe into Russia, Constantinople, an Baghdad.The Swedish Vikings influenced the growth of the early Russian state around Kiev. The Slavic people called them “Rus”. They were ruled by Vikings for a long time that the land was named Russia.

Battles of Malden and Stamford bridge
The Battle of Maldon took place beside the River Blackwater in Essex, England, during the reign of Aethelred the Unready. Earl Byrhtnoth led the English against a Viking invasion. The battle ended in an Anglo-Saxon defeat. After the battle Archbishop Sigeric of Canterbury and the aldermen of the south-western provinces advised King Aethelred to buy off the Vikings rather than continue the armed struggle.
he Battle of Stamford Bridge took place at the village of Stamford Bridge, East Riding of Yorkshire in England on 25 September 1066, between an English army under King Harold Godwinson and an invading Norwegian force led by King Harald Hardrada of Norway. The battle has traditionally been presented as symbolising the end of the Viking Age, although in fact major Scandinavian campaigns in Britain and Ireland occurred in the following decades, n
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