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English Grammar Book

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Mason huckabee

on 11 November 2013

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Transcript of English Grammar Book

1.The direct address of an absent or imaginary person or of a personified abstraction, especially as a digression in the course of a speech or composition.
2.The superscript sign ( ' ) used to indicate the omission of a letter or letters from a word, the possessive case, or the plurals of numbers, letters, and abbreviations.
Grammar Book!
Literary Terms:

The use of vivid or figurative language to represent objects, actions, or ideas
Example in Hamlet:
The graves stood tenantless and the sheeted dead
Did squeak and gibber in the Roman streets:
As stars with trains of fire and dews of blood,
Disasters in the sun; and the moist star
Upon whose influence Neptune's empire stands
Was sick almost to doomsday with eclipse . . .
a figure of speech involving the comparison of one thing with another thing of a different kind using "like" or "as."
Example of Simile in Hamlet:
'Should I not die like the grasshopper on my throne'.
'May thy heart sink as the great orb at he end of the day'.
'Wouldst thou fain cry as th'weeping willows dost'.

a figure of speech that describes a subject by asserting that it is, on some point of comparison, the same as another otherwise unrelated object.
Example of Metaphor in Hamlet:
"'This world...an unweeded garden, that grows to seed; things rank and gross in nature possess it merely." The weed was Claudius. Later, when Hamlet was trying to persuade Gertrude to split from Claudius so she wouldn't be dragged with him to Hell, Hamlet said, "do not spread the compost on the weeds, to make them ranker."
A figure of speech in which inanimate objects or abstractions are endowed with human qualities or are represented as possessing human form
Examples of personification from Hamlet:
None, my lord, but the world's grown honest
For loan oft loses both itself and friend,
And borrowing dulls the edge of husbandry.
Examples of Apostrophe in Hamlet:
Do it, England; for like the hectic in my blood he rages,
And thou must cure me: till I know 'tis done,
Howe'er my haps, my joys were ne'er begun.
a thing that represents or stands for something else, esp. a material object representing something abstract.
Example of Symbol in Hamlet:
“…Upon my secure hour thy uncle stoleWith juice of cursed hebenon in a vial,And in the porches of my ears did pour…” Talking about posion.
is a literary device in which characters or events in a literary, visual, or musical art form represent or symbolize ideas and concepts
Example of Allegory in Hamlet:
When Ophelia loses her mind in Act IV, Scene v, she starts handing out flowers to everyone around her. She talks directly about the symbolic meaning of those flowers, but what's also important is to whom she hands each flower.

A figure of speech in which exaggeration is used for emphasis or effec
Example of Hyperbole in Lit.:
I could sleep for a year
This book weighs a ton
“I’ve told you a million times”
“It was so cold, I saw polar bears wearing jackets”
A paradox in literature refers to the use of concepts/ ideas that are contradictory to one another, yet, when placed together they hold significant value on several levels
Exampe of Paradox in Hamlet:
"I must be cruel to be kind." However, Hamlet is speaking about his mother, and how he plans to ultimately slay Claudius in order to avenge his father's death. His mother is now married to Claudius, so of course this will be a tragedy for her. However, he does not want his mother to be the lover of his father's murderer (unbeknownst to her) any longer, and so he believes the murder will be for her own good.

Example of Paradox in Lit.:
You can save money by spending it.
I'm nobody.
"What a pity that youth must be wasted on the young." - George Bernard Shaw
Wise fool
"I can resist anything but temptation."-Oscar Wilde
I'm a compulsive liar- am I lying when I say that?
A rich man is no richer than a poor man.
Example of understatement in Hamlet:
/ She married. O, most wicked speed, to post / With such dexterity to incestuous sheets! / It is not nor it cannot come to good: / But break, my heart; for I must hold my tongue. (Hamlet uses understatement, to end his soliloquy, stating that all this cannot come to good, a mild statement in comparison with the rest of his speech.)

the presentation of something as being smaller, worse, or less important than it actually is.
the expression of one's meaning by using language that normally signifies the opposite, typically for humorous or emphatic effect.
Example of Irony in Hamlet:
Irony in dramatic pieces occurs when some of the characters have information that the others do not have. An example of irony in 'Hamlet' is when the ghost of his father reveals that Claudius poisoned him for his kingdom. The irony occurs in that the entire kingdom of Denmark believes the lie that he died from the bite of a poisonous snake. Only Hamlet knows that his father was murdered.
is the figure of speech in which two or more clauses are related to each other through a reversal of structures in order to make a larger point;
Examples of Chiasmus in Hamlet:
'tis true 'tis pity, And pity 'tis, 'tis true-a foolish figure.
Thanks, Rosencrantz and gentle Guildenstern. Thanks, Guildenstern and gentle Rosencrantz.
a figure of speech in which a thing or concept is called not by its own name but rather by the name of something associated in meaning with that thing or concept
Examples of Metonymy in Hamlet:
In Hamlet, one can find many references like the ghost of Hamlet's father referring to his murderer as 'the serpent that did sting thy father's life'. Another mention is where Polonius instructs his son Laertes to 'give every man thy ear' to say that he must listen to what other people have to say.
Example of Metonymy in Lit.:
Crown - in place of a royal person
The White House - in place of the President or others who work there
The suits - in place of business people
Dish - for an entire plate of food
Cup - for a mug
The Pentagon - to refer to the staff
is a figure of speech in which a term for a part of something refers to the whole of something, or vice-versa.
Examples of Synecdoche in Hamlet:
"So the whole ear of Denmark/ Is by a forged process of my death /Rankly abused."
"There were six guns out on the moor" (‘guns’ stands for shooters)
"Oxford won the match" ('Oxford' stands for the 'Oxford Eleven')
Examples of Synecdoche in Lit.:
The word “sails” is often used to refer to a whole ship.
The phrase "hired hands" can be used to refer to workmen.
The word "head" refers to cattle.
The word "wheels" refers to a vehicle.
A quick, witty reply or an exchange of witty remarks.

is the repetition of a particular sound in the prominent lifts (or stressed syllables) of a series of words or phrases.
Examples of Alliteration in Hamlet:
For we will fetters put about this fear,
Which now goes too free-footed.
Example in Modern Literature:
"He struggled up to the surface and tried to cry out, but the wash from the speeding yacht slapped him in the face and the salt water in his open mouth made him gag " This passage has appeals to taste and smell.
Examples of Simile: Modern
As sturdy as an oak
As slippery as an eel
To get angry like a volcano
To drink like a fish

Examples of Metaphor:
"All the world's a stage, and all the men and women merely players, they have their exits and their entrances." - Shakespeare
Examples of Personification in Lit.:
The stars danced playfully in the moonlit sky.
The run down house appeared depressed.
The first rays of morning tiptoed through the meadow.
Example of Apostrophe in Lit.:
"Then come, sweet death, and rid me of this grief."
"Twinkle, twinkle, little star, How I wonder what you are. Up above the world so high, Like a diamond in the sky." -
Example of Symbol in Lit.:
Light and dark are symbols that a reader might see in modernist literature. Light usually represents knowledge and good; whereas, dark usually represents the mysterious and evil.
Example of Allegory in Lit.:
Any allegory is when the literal story actually represents something else. Animal Farm by George Orwell is probably the most famous modern allegory. The animals on the farm overthrow the humans and take over running the place. This represents events leading up to the Stalin-era in Russia. So the farm politics represent real politics.
Example of Hyperbole in Hamlet:
At the burial of Ophelia in Hamlet (1600), her brother Laertes leaps into her grave and asks that the earth be piled on both of them "Till of this flat a mountain you have made"; at which Hamlet then outdoes Laertes figuratively by calling for "millions of acres" to be piled on all three. -
Example of Understatement in Lit.:
"It's a bit yellow" - while describing a very yellow canary.
"There is some music by Beethoven in his Ninth Symphony" - while describing Beethoven's famous work.
"The desert is sometimes dry and sandy" - While describing the driest desert in the world.
"It is just a little cool today" - when the temperature outside is 5° below zero.
"The food was tolerable" - on the food that was prepared by the best chef in the world.

Example of Irony in Lit:
Example: A person who claims to be a vegan and avoids meat but will eat a slice of pepperoni pizza because they are hungry. It may not make sense, but it is an illustration of irony.
Example: A man who is a traffic cop gets his license suspended for unpaid parking tickets.
Example: An ambulance driver goes to a nightime bike accident scene and runs over the accident victim because the victim has crawled to the center of the road with their bike.
Examples of Chiasmum is Lit.:
"A hard man is good to find." - Mae West (Reversing, a good man is hard to find).
"A lawyer starts life giving $500 worth of law for $5 and ends giving $5 worth for $500."
dialogue in which two characters speak alternate lines of verse, used as a stylistic device in ancient Greek drama.
Stock Characters:
is someone based on a common literary or social stereotype. Stock characters rely heavily on cultural types or names for their personality, manner of speech, and other characteristics.
Examples of Alliteration in Lit.:
Alice’s aunt ate apples and acorns around August.
Becky’s beagle barked and bayed, becoming bothersome for Billy.
Carrie's cat clawed her couch, creating chaos.
Dan’s dog dove deep in the dam, drinking dirty water as he dove.
Eric’s eagle eats eggs, enjoying each episode of eating.
Fred’s friends fried Fritos for Friday’s food.
the repetition of vowel sounds to create internal rhyming within phrases or sentences, and together with alliteration and consonance serves as one of the building blocks of verse
Example of Assonance in Hamlet:
Doubt thou the stars are fire; Doubt that the sun doth move
The Ghost says to Hamlet - "With witchcraft of his wit, with traitorous gifts,-- O wicked wit and gifts."

Examples of Assonance in Lit.:
"Hear the mellow wedding bells" by Edgar Allen Poe
"Try to light the fire"
"I lie down by the side fo my bride"/"Fleet feet sweep by sleeping geese"/"Hear the lark and harden to the barking of the dark fox gone to ground" by Pink Floyd
"It's hot and it's monotonous." by Sondheim
is a harmony, chord, or interval considered stable
Example of Consonance in Hamlet:
"Till then sit still, my soul: foul deeds will rise though all the earth o'erwhelm them, to men's eyes
Example of Consonance in Lit.:
Litter and batter
Spelled and scald
Laughed and deft
Dress and boss
Slither and lather
correspondence of sound between words or the endings of words, esp. when these are used at the ends of lines of poetry.
Example in Hamlet:
Till then sit still, my soul: foul deeds will rise,
Though all the earth o'erwhelm them, to men's eyes.
Example in Lit.:
Once upon a midnight dreary,
while I pondered, weak and weary,
Over many a quaint and curious volume of forgotten lore
-Edgar Allen Poe
The beat in a poem;the musical quality in language produced by repetition or emphasis.
Examples in Hamlet:
"Indeed this counselor / Is now most still, most secret, and most grave, / Who was in life a foolish prating knave"
Examples in Lit.:
Because I could not stop for Death,
He kindly stopped for me;
The carriage held but just ourselves
And Immortality.
The measured arrangement of words in poetry, as by accentual rhythm, syllabic quantity, or the number of syllables in a line.
Example in Hamlet:
"O, what a rogue and peasant slave am I!"
Example in Lit.:
Shall I com PARE thee TO a SUM mer’s DAY?
Each pair of unstressed and stressed syllables makes up a unit called a foot. The line contains five feet in all, as shown next:
....1.............. 2.................3..............4................ 5
Shall.I..|..com.PARE..|..thee.TO..|..a.SUM..|..mer’s DAY?

is a feature in poetry in which the syntactic unit (phrase, clause, or sentence) corresponds in length to the line.
End-stopped line:
Example in Hamlet:
"And by opposing end them? To die: to sleep;"
"To sleep: perchance to dream: ay, there's the rub;"
Example in Lit.:
Bright Star, would I were as stedfast as thou art—
Not in lone splendor hung aloft the night,
And watching, with eternal lids apart,
Like nature's patient, sleepless Eremite,
meaning no punctuation at the end of a line.
Run-on line:
Example in Hamlet:
"Whether 'tis nobler in the mind to suffer"
"That flesh is heir to, 'tis a consummation"
Example in Lit.:
I wonder, by my troth, what thou and I »
Did, till we lovd? Were we not weand till then?
(John Donne, The Good-morrow)
is a complete pause in a line of poetry or in a musical composition.
Example in Hamlet:
Hamlet's 'To Be, or Not To Be..." soliloquy, Shakespeare employs the use of many caesura, with punctuation leading to natural pauses in the speech, allowing for a more dramatic effect, and allowing for the reader's thought process to better display itself during the speech itself
Example in Lit.:
To err is human; || to forgive, divine
~ Alexander Pope
is an open form of poetry. It does not use consistent meter patterns, rhyme, or any other musical pattern
Free Verse:
Example in Hamlet:
"Rightly to be great
Is not to move without great argument,
But to find quarrel greatly in worthless land
When honor’s at stake."
Example in Lit.:
Fog by Carl Sandburg
The fog comes
on little cat feet.
It sits looking
over harbor and city
on silent haunches
and then moves on.
a commonly used metrical line in traditional verse and verse drama. The term describes the particular rhythm that the words establish in that line.
Iambic Pentameter:
Example in Hamlet:
O, that this too, too solid flesh would melt;
Thaw, and resolve itself into a dew.
to BE or NOT to BE, that IS the QUEStion
Example in Lit. :
And I do love thee: therefore, go with me;
I'll give thee fairies to attend on thee,
And they shall fetch thee jewels from the deep,
And sing while thou on pressed flowers dost sleep
Grammatical/rhetorical pauses:
A unit of verse consisting of two successive lines, usually rhyming and having the same meter and often forming a complete thought or syntactic unit.
Concluding Couplets:
Example in Hamlet:
"Foul deeds will rise, / Though all the earth's o'erwhelm them, to men's eyes."
"The play's the thing / Wherein I'll catch the conscious of the King."
Example in Lit.:
"Hear the honking of the goose
I think he’s angry at the moose"
"The children like the ocean shore
We want to leave but they want more"
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