Transcript of Self Disclosure and The Social Penetration Theory
SELF DISCLOSURE Social Penetration is the process of developing deeper intimacy with another person through mutual self disclosure and other forms of vulnerability. ONION MODEL We had this clip first! Altman and Taylor claim that once a wedge has been penetrated it leaves a permanent passage. The degree and range of disclosure in specific areas of an individuals life Summary of Self Disclosure Social Exchange Psychologist John Thibaut and Harold Kelly say that the outcome of friendship is dependent on social exchange. The Dialectical Model Altman's Second Thought Others may reveal information during stress or tension. and The Social Penetration Theory Samantha Nolen and Juliette Smith Developed by psychology professors Irwin Altman and Dalmas Taylor in 1973 Altman and Taylor sought to explain why or why not people share information about themselves and the effects it has on relationships. GAME What is the SPT? They described people as onions! Sorry for the language! Depth and Breadth of Penetration DORM ROOM STUDY Altman conducted a Dorm Room Living study at the University in Utah. Plain Room People with rooms like this often shut themselves out to potential visitors by playing loud music and keeping doors closed. These students were more likely to drop out. Decorated Room People with rooms like these had a welcoming room where doors were open and people were invited in. These students were more likely to get a degree. What does this tell us? The need shows that the onion of social penetration includes both mind and body. Critique of SPT Peripheral items are exchanged more frequently & sooner than private information. Self–disclosure is reciprocal. Penetration is rapid at first but slows down quickly as you reach the inner layers. Depenetration is a gradual process of layer-by-layer withdrawal. Depth and breadth are equally important. “Interpersonal closeness proceeds in a gradual and orderly fashion from superficial to intimate levels of exchange, motivated by current and projected future outcomes. Lasting intimacy requires continual and mutual vulnerability through breadth and depth of self disclosure” Visited another country Female Night-owl Never flown Owns a car Been in love & hurt Atheist or Agnostic Family is middle class Family is upper class First born Youngest in the family Only child Sometimes has low self-confidence Sometimes feels lonely Been in a physical fight <3.5 GPA last semester Democrat Republican Socialist Adopted Divorced parents Abstinent until marriage Alcoholic in family Know someone suicidal Not yet stood up It is the perceived rewards and costs in a relationship that determines vulnerability. Altman's further research made him question his original claim that privacy disrupts intimacy. In 1975, he came up with the dialectical model which suggests that relationships are characterized by both privacy and intimacy, in which the tension results in cycles of disclosure, or withdrawal. Environment is also a factor in social penetration. In his findings, he observed that those who displayed a need for territory were likely to stay in school, while those who did not were more likely to drop out. He visited dorm rooms of various students, took pictures, and examined their school records two years later. Decorations displayed self-disclosure. (Calendars, Schedules, Hobbies, and Photos) Penetrate psychological space (their onion) before penetrating physical space (People may be unwilling to show you their personal space, until you get to know them better). Sandra Petronio argues SPT is too simplistic.Full transcript
She believes privacy boundaries can vary, change, and are frequently permeable. Julia Wood argues that the theory does not address ethical issues. SURVEY FINDINGS Bedroom descriptions:
Personal photos - 60%
Trophies - 5%
Not my interest - 5%
Mom decorated - 0%
Other - 30% Irwin Altman and Dalmas Taylor, Social Penetration: The Development of Interpersonal Relationships, Holt, New York, 1973.
Irwin Altman, "Toward a Transactional Perspective: A Personal Journey," in Environment and Behavior Studies: Emergence of intellectual Traditions: Advances in Theory and Research, Vol. 11, Human Behavior and Environment, Environment and Behavior Studies, Irwin Altman and Kathleen Christensen (eds.), Plenum, New York, 1990, pp. 225-255.
Dalmas Taylor and Irwin Altman, "Communication in Interpersonal Relationships: Social Penetration Processes," in Interpersonal Processes: New Directions in Communication Research, Michael Roloff and Gerald Miller (eds.), Sage, Newbury Park, CA, 1987, pp. 257-277.
John W. Thibaut and Harold H. Kelley, The Social Psychology of Groups, John Wiley & Songs, New York, 1952.
Irwin Altman, Anne Vinsel, and Barbara Brown, "Dialectic Conceptions in Social Psychology: An Application to Social Penetration and Privacy Regulation," in Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, Vol. 14, Leonard Berkowitz (ed.), Academic Press, New York, 1981, pp. 107-160.
Em Griffin, A First Look at Communication Theory, Mc-Graw Hill, 1999. Citations Purple - Biographical Data Green - Preference in food, clothes, and music Yellow - Goals and Aspirations Orange - Religious Convictions Red - Deeply held fears and fantasies Sucker - Concept of Self
Outer Layer - Public for everyone who looks
Semiprivate Layers - Describe attitudes
Deeper Layers - Invisible to the world Layers of Self Disclosure Personality:
Shy - 25%
Outgoing - 75% Sit by partners:
Yes - 65%
No - 35% Closest to your core:
Parents - 5%
Best friend - 50%
Sibling - 5%
Significant Other - 40%
Other - 0% The majority of you said
you felt most connected
to fellow classmates in
communication classes. Today we're going to talk about... What SPT is
The Onion Model
Breadth and Depth of Penetration
The Survey Findings What we talked about... What SPT is
The Onion Model
Breadth and Depth of Penetration
The survey Findings Game Debriefing