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User Innovation

Who, What, How

rebecca pera

on 27 March 2012

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Transcript of User Innovation

User’s innovation Who, what and how Who - Consumers’ empowerment the utilitaristic consumer
the passive consumer
the symbolic consumer
the "craft" consumer
the cooperative consumer

What do we need? knowledge
Co-innovation (lead-user-innovation)
Co-promotion (competitions)
Co-production (user tailor production; self-serving)
Co-imagination (daily interaction with community of fans) Von Hippel 2009 Different approach: market oriented vs with the market; profit oriented vs profit & socially oriented Collaborative creativity (two-way and bottom-up)
Observed creativity (one-way and top-down)
Confirmed creativity (two-way but top-down)
Induced creativity (one-way & top-down)
Enabled creativity (the company provides the platforms and the consumers create the content - two-way and bottom-up)
What else??? Belk notices that "academics of marketing and social sciences analize consumers in the same way that fishmen study fish instead of studying them as sea biologist should"
“Nulla si sa, tutto si immagina" Fellini What do we study? Personality
Mental Models
... What is Personality? The inner psychological characteristics that both determine and reflect how a person responds to his or her environment Freud
Unconscious needs or drives are at the heart of human motivation
Neo-Freudian personality theory
Social relationships are fundamental to the formation and development of personality
Trait theory
Quantitative approach to personality as a set of psychological traits FREUD
Warehouse of primitive or instinctual needs for which individual seeks immediate satisfaction
Individual’s internal expression of society’s moral and ethical codes of conduct
Individual’s conscious control that balances the demands of the id and superego
HORNEY'S CAD THEORY (neo freudian)
Using the context of child-parent relationships, individuals can be classified into: Compliant individuals; Aggressive individuals; Detached individuals Compliant Personality
One who desires to be loved, wanted, and appreciated by others.
Aggressive Personality
One who moves against others (e.g., competes with others, desires to excel and win admiration).
Detached Personality
One who moves away from others (e.g., who desires independence, self-sufficiency, and freedom from obligations). TRAIT THEORY
Personality theory with a focus on psychological characteristics. Trait - any distinguishing, relatively enduring way in which one individual differs from another. Personality is linked to how
users make their choices Personality Traits and Consumer Innovators
Social Character
Optimum stimulation level
Sensation Seeking (SS) INNOVATIVENESS
The degree to which consumers are receptive to new products, new services or new practices. DOGMATISM
A personality trait that reflects the degree of rigidity a person displays toward the unfamiliar and toward information that is contrary to his or her own established beliefs.
Consumers low in dogmatism (open-minded) are more likely to prefer innovative products to established or traditional alternatives
Highly dogmatic consumers tend to be more receptive to ads for new products or services that contain an appeal from an authoritative figure SOCIAL CHARACTER
Consumers who tend to rely on their own inner values
More likely to be innovators
Tend to prefer information that stress product features and benefits SOCIAL CHARACTER
Consumers who tend to look to others for direction
Less likely to be innovators
Tend to prefer information that feature social acceptance Optimum Stimulation Levels
A personality trait that measures the level or amount of novelty or complexity that individuals seek in their personal experiences. High OSL consumers tend to accept risky and novel products more readily than low OSL consumers. SENSATION SEEKING (SS)
A personality trait characterized by the need for varied, novel, and complex sensations and experience, and the willingness to take physical and social risks for the sake of such experience. Cognitive Personality Factors
Need for cognition
A person’s craving for enjoyment of thinking
Visualizers vs Verbalizers
A person’s preference for information presented visually or verbally Consumers high in NC are more likely to respond to info rich in product-related information
Consumers low in NC are more likely to be attracted to background or peripheral aspects of an info
what is motivation? Rationality implies that consumers select goals
based on totally objective criteria such as
size, weight, price, or miles per gallon
Emotional motives imply the selection of goals according to personal or subjective criteria MURRAY'S LIST OF PSYCHOGENIC NEEDS
Needs Associated with Inanimate Objects:
Acquisition, Conservancy, Order, Retention, Construction
Needs Reflecting Ambition, Power, Accomplishment, and Prestige:
Superiority, Achievement, Recognition, Exhibition
Needs Connected with Human Power:
Dominance, Deferrence, Similance, Autonomy
Sado-Masochistic Needs :
Aggression, Abasement
Needs Concerned with Affection between People:
Affiliation, Rejection, Nurturance, Play
Needs Concerned with Social Intercourse:
Cognizance, Exposition e.g. Flash mobs Rachel Botsman 2010 what are values? Arnold and Reynolds shopping motives
1. Adventure shopping - to seek stimulation, adventure, and feelings of being in a different world.
2. Social shopping - for enjoyment of shopping with friends and family, socialising while shopping and bonding with others.
3. Gratification shopping - for stress relief, to alleviate a negative mood and as a special treat to oneself.
4. Idea shopping - for keeping up with trends and new fashions and to seek new products and innovations.
5. Role shopping - for getting enjoyment as a consequence of shopping for others.
6. Value shopping (reflecting shopping for sales, looking for discounts, and hunting for bargains).
Examples from the Rokeach Value Survey Societal values continuum
Individualistic, Independent, Separated
Harley Davidson: ‘We don’t care how everyone does it…we prefer to go our own way’

Non-western: connected, interdependent, CollectiveFuji Bank: ‘Meeting client needs is half the story, meeting society’s needs is the other half’
Societal values continuum
UK: Singularity, difficult to express feelings, not tactile.
France: Search for quality of life/well being.
Italy: Religious idealism, community, curiosity.
Spain: Human interaction, sharing, harmony.
Germany: Tangible reality, concrete pleasure.

Harris Research 98
"Core conceptions of the desirable within every individual and society. They serve as standards or criteria to guide not only action but also judgment, choice, attitude, evaluation..." Rokeach 1979 What is Research? Why do we carry it out?
How? QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH - Descriptive in nature.
- Enables companies to “predict” consumer behaviour.
- Research methods include generally experiments, survey techniques.
- Findings are descriptive, empirical and generalizable.
QUALITATIVE RESEARCH - Consists of depth interviews, focus groups, metaphor analysis, collage research, and projective techniques, ethnographic techniques…
- Administered by highly trained interviewer-analysts.
- Findings tend to be subjective.
- Small sample sizes.

1. defining the objectives of the research
2. collecting and evaluating secondary data
3. designing a primary research study
4. collecting primary data
5. analyzing the data
6. preparing a report on the findings SIX STEPS HOW?
Attitude Scales - Likert scales: easy for researchers to prepare and interpret, and simple for consumers to answer.
- Semantic differential scales: relatively easy to construct and administer.
- Rank-order scales: subjects rank items in order of preference in terms of some criteria.
Example of a Likert scales
Please place the number that best indicates how strongly you agree or disagree with each of the following statements about shopping online in the space to the left of the statement.
1 = Agree Strongly
2 = Agree
3 = Neither Agree or Disagree
4 = Disagree
5 = Disagree Strongly
_____ a. It is fun to shop online.
_____ b. Products often cost more online.
_____ c. It is a good way to find out about new products.

Example of a Semantic Differential
Example of a Rank Order Scale
Rank the following computer manufacturers in terms of hotline help by placing a 1 next to the one who provides the best telephone help, a 2 next to the second best, until you have ranked all six.

_____ IBM _____Hewlett Packard
_____ Dell _____ Gateway
_____ Compaq _____ NEC Qualitative Data Collection Methods Depth Interviews
Focus Group
A qualitative research method in which eight to ten persons participate in an unstructured group interview about a product or service concept.

Selected Portions of a Discussion Guide
1. Why did you decide to use your current cellular company? (Probe)‏
2. How long have you used you current cellular company? (Probe)‏
3. Have you ever switched services? When? What caused the change? (Probe)‏
4. What do you think of the overall quality of your current service? (Probe)‏
5. What are the important criteria in electing a cellular service? (Probe)‏
Creative Group Sessions and Participatory Design
A group of 8-12 people gather with the aim of idea generation in relation to a specific problem. The group is coordinated by a facilitator/designer. Different techniques are available, some are more analytical, others more creative.

To see the different tecniques refer to ppt slides on "Creativity" What is Design Research? Why do we carry it out?
How? Kitchen stories

Can you describe emotions of the observee in the first part? Provide examples
what is the attitude of the reseracher? which ojectives? What is the nature of the observation?
Why relations were not allowed?
Which limits can you see in the used research method? Comment
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