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Ancient Egypt

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Div 1 Ms. Major

on 25 April 2016

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Transcript of Ancient Egypt

Ancient Egypt
Traditions
Language
Egyptian
Oldest known language of Egypt
Branch of Afroasiatic language family
Spoken until the late 17th century
Food
Meat: goat, beef, fish, poultry, duck, and crane
Vegetables: onion, garlic, radish, turnips, beans, and corn
Fruits: pomegranates, grapes, plumes, figs, and dates
Wheat bread was popular for all social classes
Preserved food by salting or drying
Pharaohs
The term "
pharaoh
" is the Greek translation of the Egyptian term "
pero
" or "
per-a-a
"
The pharaoh was the executive and spiritual leader of Ancient Egypt
They carried the names of "
Lord of the Two Lands
" and "
High Priest of Every Temple
"
The pharaoh had the duties of gathering tax, creating laws, defending Egypt from conquerors, and effectuating rituals
Narmer / Menes --- the first pharaoh that reigned Ancient Egypt --- began his reign in an estimate of 3150 B.C.E., while Cleopatra VII --- the last pharaoh that reigned Ancient Egypt --- ended her reign in an estimate of 30 B.C.E. If you would subtract the years, you would have about 3120 years. So, the pharaohs ruled in an estimate of 3120 years
There were about 170 pharaohs in total
History
Clothing
Agriculture
Laws
Based on common sense view of right & wrong
Based on concept of Ma'at ( represented truth, order, balance, and justice)
Everyone with the exception slaves viewed as equal ( regardles of wealth or social position )
When punishment happened often the entire family suffered as well.
Most important matters were reported to the king who then decide the case & proper justice.
Tomb robbery was considered to be one of the most evilest deed

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Philosophies
Mummification
Stories
Social Structure and Jobs
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]
Technology, Tools and Inventions
Pharaohs & Influential People
The Arts: Music, Dance, Drama, and Visual
Transportation
Military and Warfare
Architectural Developments
Thanks for watching!
This is the end of our presentation
The Nile
Crowns
Royal Crowns. (n.d.). Retrieved April 10, 2016, from http://www.ancientegypt.co.uk/pharaoh/explore/bluec_b1.html
Citations

Ancient Egypt. (n.d.). Retrieved April 10, 2016, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ancient_Egypt


Ancient Egyptians: Objects from Daily Life. (n.d.). Retrieved April 10, 2016, from http://www.mylearning.org/ancient-egyptians-objects-from-daily-life/p-3509/


Ancient Egypt Tools. (n.d.). Retrieved April 10, 2016, from http://www.epiceras-ancientegypt.com/ancient_egypt_tools.html


Weapons. (n.d.). Retrieved April 10, 2016, from http://www.ancientegypt.co.uk/pharaoh/explore/weapo_b1.html


The Franklin Institute. (n.d.). Retrieved April 10, 2016, from https://www.fi.edu/lost-egypt/tools-technologies-ancient-egypt


Ancient Egyptian technology. (n.d.). Retrieved April 10, 2016, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ancient_Egyptian_technology


10 Amazing Ancient Egyptian Inventions(n.d.). Retrieved April 10, 2016, from http://science.howstuffworks.com/innovation/inventions/5-amazing-ancient-egyptian-inventions.htm


Description of the Tools & Weapons Used in Ancient Egypt | The Classroom | Synonym. (n.d.). Retrieved April 10, 2016, from http://classroom.synonym.com/description-tools-weapons-used-ancient-egypt-12280.html
Websites
Books

Toutant, A., & Doyle, S. (2000). Ancient worlds. Don Mills, Ont.: Oxford University Press.

Nile River Flooding Cycle
Wall Paintings:
Rich and powerful Egyptians tomb walls painted the Egyptians happy life
Tells stories
Scientist study ancient Egyptians from wall paintings
Used colours: blue, black, red, green,and gold
Relief:
Sculpture part of wall
Carved into walls in temples and tombs
Sculptures:
Famous for giant sculptures; Great Sphinx of Giza 240 feet long
Used: alabaster, ivory, limestone, basalt, wood gilded with gold



Ancient Egyptian Food - Facts for Kids. (n.d.). Retrieved April 10, 2016, from http://www.historyforkids.net/egyptian-food.html


Art History and Artists. (n.d.). Retrieved April 11, 2016, from http://www.ducksters.com/history/art/ancient_egyptian_art.php

Most pyramids in Ancient Egypt were built as tombs for Pharaohs and their families
Egyptian Pyramids often contain multiple chambers and passages
• Ancient Egyptian Pyramid Facts for Kids - Giza, Djoser, Saqqara, Tutankhamun. (n.d.). Retrieved April 11, 2016, from http://www.sciencekids.co.nz/sciencefacts/engineering/egyptianpyramids.html
Clothes
Made with linen
The linen was made from flux plants
The linen and quality depended on how rich the people were
The Egyptians used natural resources
Jewelry
Both men & women of all social classes wore jewelry
Earrings,bracelets,arm bands,collar pieces,rings & anklets were common types of jewelry they wore
Copper & gold were the main materials to make jewelry
Used gold arranged in shades of grey to radish brown to rose

Crowns represent the land that the pharaoh reigns and are worn by pharaohs during certain events
Hedjet
(White Crown) represented the pharaoh's jurisdiction over Upper Egypt, and was to be worn during events concerning only Upper Egypt
Deshret
(Red Crown) represented the pharaoh's jurisdiction over Lower Egypt, and was to be worn on occasions involving Lower Egypt only
Pschent
(Double Crown) is a combination of the
Hedjet
(White Crown) and the
Deshret
(Red Crown). It symbolised the joining of the two lands, and the pharaoh's jurisdiction over the two lands
Khepresh
(Blue Crown) was a cloth or leather dyed blue with discs of bronze or gold as decorations. The
Khepresh
was worn during war, also on liturgical events
The
Atef
Crown was a white-colored headdress with ostrich feathers as decorations, and was worn during spiritual rituals
The
Nemes
Headress is a blue and gold striped head cloth that shrouded the crown until the nape or back of the pharaoh

The Crowns of the Pharaohs. (n.d.). Retrieved April 11, 2016, from http://www.ancient-origins.net/ancient-places-africa-news-general-opinion/crowns-pharaohs-00579


Automatic Bibliography Maker. (n.d.). Retrieved April 11, 2016, from http://www.bibme.org/

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Story of Re
Story about the creation
Re's revenge of mankind
How Isis tricked Re into telling his secret
Isis and Osiris
Seth murdured Osiris
Horus avenged his father
The doomed prince
About the unfinished fable of a prince
Prince doomed to death
Chariots
Horses were introduced into Egypt by the Hyksos in the 17th century
Although the art of riding was known and occasionally practiced, horses were generally not mounted until half a millennium later, but were harnessed to chariots
Donkeys
Instead of camels, Egyptians tamed donkeys and employed them for carrying loads and, less commonly, for riding
Sledges
Heavy loads were loaded onto wooden sledges and dragged by large numbers of men
Smaller loads were also often transported by sledge
Rafts, Boats and Ships
Carried loads across the water
Most often used in the Nile River
Their military contained infantry, chariotry, and a navy
Chariotry was the backbone of the Egyptian army and was introduced into ancient Egypt from Western Asia at the end of the Second Intermediate Period
Chariots were generally used as a mobile platform to use projectile weapons, and were generally pulled by two horses
The navel vessels carried infantry during the Old Kingdom
Egyptians used spears, bows, and the
sling as projectiles
They later introduced the composite
bow which was able to achieve the
greatest range
Egyptians also used a sword like
weapon called Khopesh which had a
curved blade



Hatshesput
Was the first female pharaoh
Was displayed as a male on statues
Tutankhamun
Was appointed as pharaoh at the age of 9
Died at the age of 18
Akhenaten
Worshipped only 1 god : Ra/Re, the god of the sun
Married Nefirtiti
Cleopatra VII
Was the last pharaoh to reign Egypt
Was the last female pharaoh
Made a coalition with Julius Caeser and Mark Antony


Philosophical notions of Ancient Egypt were slightly linked to their devout beliefs
The Egyptian society was constructed by the idea of
Ma'at
, meaning stability and orderliness
Egyptians believed that humans were consisted of 3 parts: body, soul, and spirit

Egyptians believed that the destiny of the soul depends on the decisions it has made when it was alive, the amount of amulets it owns, the amount of prayers prayed, and the number of gifts given to acquire the favor of the gods
Eternal Egypt. (n.d.). Retrieved April 15, 2016, from http://www.eternalegypt.org/EternalEgyptWebsiteWebHomeServletee_website_action_key=action.display.topic.details
Planted crops along the Nile River
Each year water gradually drains out of the Nile
Leaves behind fine soil
Over time made ditches and canals which trapped water for later use
The Egyptians knew about flooding cycle


Mummification took 70 days
Organs taken out
Left heart; believed organ contained emotion & intelligence
Organs placed in jars by tomb
Took brain out; used wire through nose
Mouth cleaned out; filled with oil scented linen
Body covered with natron; left to dry
After 40-50 days, liquid absorbed; skin bones and hair remain
Body stuffed: resin, sawdust, or linen
Onions or white stones placed into eye
Beeswax into nostrils
Filled places where organs were with spices and herbs
Body wrapped firmly; linen
Each stage of wrapping priest chants spells 7 prayers
Body put in shroud; burial sheet
Placed in sarcophagus; stone cofffin
Placed jewelry & amulets between layers of linen
Placed scrab-beetle amulet over heart
Tools
Created wooden tools, stone tools, copper tools, bronze tools and Iron tools
Stone tools was mainly used for pounding grinding and cutting
Copper was the first metal to be used in Egypt
Inventions and Tecnology
Invented many things such as papyrus(paper), their own language, Sundials, makeup, the calender, and black ink
Paper was made from the interior of a stiff, reed-like plant, which was commonly used to make scrolls
Egyptian language made from pictograms dating back to 6000 BC
The sundial was used to measure the time of the day based on the length and direction of the shadow casted by a stick
Both male and female egyptians placed great importance in their appearance. Eye makeup was first invented by the egyptians around 4000 BC, and was also used for religious and cultural reasons
Makeup was made by combining soot with a mineral called galena
3100-332 BC
Was the presiment civilization in the Mediterranean world
Lasted for more than 3000 years
Human settlement in egypt dates back to at least 40,000 BC
Egyptians were among the first people to develop a system of writing
Was ruled before then by thirty dynasties, or families, of kings and queens.
Had 2 Kingdoms, Lower Egypt and Higher Egypt
Lower Egypt was a richer kingdom. Upper Egypt was more educated.


They speak literary Arabic
Men and women were treated equally
Ramadan is a religious month for Egypt. They stay awake at night and spend time in prayer and spiritual activities
Children wore exposing clothing before they reached puberty
Ancient Egypt Technology and Inventions. - Fun Facts You Need to Know! (2015). Retrieved April 20, 2016, from http://ipfactly.com/ancient-egypt-technology-and-inventions/

Ancient Egyptian Technology. (n.d.). Retrieved April 20, 2016, from http://www.egyptiandiamond.com/ancient-egyptian-technology.php
Ancient Egypt. (n.d.). Retrieved April 20, 2016, from http://www.ducksters.com/history/ancient_egyptian_pharaohs.php

Jarus, B. O. (2013). Hatshepsut: First Female Pharaoh. Retrieved April 20, 2016, from http://www.livescience.com/28510-hatshepsut-first-female-pharaoh.html

Tutankhamun facts! (n.d.). Retrieved April 20, 2016, from http://www.ngkids.co.uk/history/tutankhamun-facts

Cleopatra VII. (n.d.). Retrieved April 20, 2016, from http://www.biography.com/people/cleopatra-vii-9250984#early-years

Mythology

Ancient Egyptian Culture. (n.d.). Retrieved April 21, 2016, from http://www.ancient.eu/Egyptian_Culture/
Demons
Stronger than humans but weaker than gods
Usually immortal but limits to their power
Most important demon was Ammuit, the devourer of the dead
Ammuit was part crocodile, part lioness, and part hippopotamus
She was shown near the scales that weigh hearts of the dead against feathers of truth
Gods and goddesses
Nut or the sky god, swallows Ra (the sun god) each day and gives birth to him the next
Shu was the god of the air, the husband of Tefnut and the father of Nut and Geb. He and his wife were the first gods created by Atum
Geb was the father of Osiris, Isis, Seth, and Nephythys. As an Earth god he was associated with fertility and it was believed that earthquakes were the laughter of Geb

Ancient Egyptian Gods and Goddesses. (n.d.). Retrieved April 21, 2016, from http://discoveringegypt.com/ancient-egyptian-gods-and-goddesses/

Religion and Beliefs
The religion of the Egyptians was based on polytheism (the adoration of deities)
The Egyptians worshipped deities
There was an estimate of 2000 gods and goddesses that the Egyptians worshipped
A number of gods and goddesses were worshipped by the whole country of Egypt
A number of deities were exhibited as half-human and half-animal
Egyptians believed in many things such as gods and goddesses, deities and the afterlife
The Egyptians deemed animals such as cats, crocodiles, and bulls to be sacred
Horus was the son of Osiris and Isis and the enemy of the wicked God Seth. He was the god of the sky and the divine protector of kings
Seth was the son of Geb and Nut, and the evil brother of Osiris. He was the god of darkness, chaos, and confusion
Tefnut was the wife of Shu and mother of Nut and Geb. She and her husband were the first gods created by Atum. She was the goddess of moisture or damp, corrosive air, and was depicted as a woman with a lioness’s head
The supreme sun god, Ra was represented as a man with the head of a hawk, crowned with a solar disk and the sacred serpent.Ra traveled across the sky each day in the form of a sun, riding his solar boat. His influence on the other gods was so strong that he subsumed many of their identities. Thus Amun became Amun-Ra, Montu became Montu-Ra and Horus became Ra-Horakhty
Thoth was the god of writing and knowledge, and was depicted as a man with the head of an ibis. One of his most important roles was to record the deeds of the dead at the day of their judgment
Timeline
Egyptian Arabic
Current national language of Egypt
Variety of the Arabic languages
Coptic
Still used as the liturgical language of the coptic church
There are still several people who speak Coptic fluently
Egyptian language. (n.d.). Retrieved April 24, 2016, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Egyptian_language
Two predominant building materials used in ancient Egypt were sun-baked mudbrick and stone
Ancient Egyptian architecture. (n.d.). Retrieved April 24, 2016, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ancient_Egyptian_architecture
Ancient Egyptian houses were made out of mud collected from the Nile river
The core of the pyramids consisted of locally quarried stone, mudbricks, sand or gravel
Early Dynastic Period 3100–2686 BC

Old Kingdom 2686–2181 BC

1st Intermediate Period 2181–2055 BC

Middle Kingdom 2055–1650 BC

2nd Intermediate Period 1650–1550 BC

New Kingdom 1550–1069 BC

3rd Intermediate Period 1069–664 BC

Late Period 664–332 BC

Achaemenid Egypt 525–332 BC
In the social pyramid of Ancient Egypt, the pharaoh is at the top while the slaves were at the bottom
The (highest to lowest) order of the social pyramid is: pharaoh, government officials, priests, nobles, soldiers, scribes, merchants, craftsmen, farmers, and slaves
Egyptian men had jobs such as bakers, soldiers, farmers, merchants, scribes
Egyptian women had jobs such as housewives, administrators, supervisors, weavers, domestic helpers, musicians
The Egyptians were salaried with, not money, but goods

P., & Hawkins, A. (n.d.). Ancient Egyptian Jobs. Retrieved April 24, 2016, from https://prezi.com/t2fmhx7vmqrh/ancient-egyptian-jobs/


Edwards, I. E. (1976). Treasures of Tutankhamun. New York: Ballantine Books

The egyptians calender was composed of 365 days, 12 months, 30 days in each month, and 5 extra days added to each year.This calendar correlated with the flood cycle of the Nile so that the farmers were informed of the best times to plant
The year was divided into three seasons — akhet (inundation), peret (growth) and shemu (harvest)
They mixed soot, vegetable gum and beeswax to make black ink. To get other colors, they replaced the soot with other organic materials, such as ocher, which made red-colored ink
The plow was probably first used by the Egyptians around 4000 BC, but the early plow was not a very effective method of farming. The Egyptians improved it by hooking it to a team of oxen which made it much more efficient
model of Ramses lll
Egyptian hieroglyphs
was a formal writing system used by the ancient Egyptians that combined logographic and alphabetic elements
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