Atomic Theory

Temperature

Expansion

Ideal Gas Law

Kinetic Theory

Phases / diagrams

amu

Celsius, Fahrenheit, Kelvin

Atomic Theory

Everything made of atoms

phases describe by interacting atoms

solid : atoms bonded

liquids : week forces, motion allowed

gases : high speeds little interaction

amu, uamu, u

atomic mass number

Temperature

All scales need two things

starting point

step size

Conversions

273 is just fine.

Expansion

All things expand when heated, and shrink when cooled.

water is notable exception.

These are table problems. look up the alpha or beta values.

**Ideal gas law**

A. remember it with fondness

B. Remember it, not so fun

C. Have forgotten it

D. Never heard of it

A. remember it with fondness

B. Remember it, not so fun

C. Have forgotten it

D. Never heard of it

**Many experiments done over the years, sometimes with many years in between**

**P and V inversely proportional**

**V and T proportional**

**P and T proportional**

(Kelvin scale)

Mass not the proportionality constant, Number of particle is.

**moles**

A mole is defined as the same number of atoms or molecules as there are in 12 grams of carbon 12

thus it is a unit of number,

Molecular mass. This is the number you read on a

periodic table below the element.

It is the amu of an element, or the number of grams

needed for a mole of the substance.

for example

carbon dioxide has 1 carbon and 2 oxygens

so its molecular mass is 12+16+16 = 44 u

And if I had 66 grams I would have 66/44 = 1.5 mol

**How many moles of Carbon 12**

do I have if the sample contains

48 grams?

A. 1

B. 2

C. 3

D. 4

E. 5

do I have if the sample contains

48 grams?

A. 1

B. 2

C. 3

D. 4

E. 5

This is the equation of state for an ideal gas

often called the ideal gas law. Where R is the

proportionality constant

other number work, just watch units.

pressure is in Pa, volume in cubic meters

T in kelvin.

This is a powerful equation that is used for all gases, by adding up how many particles there are in a mole.

thus one way to define a mole is the number of particles, Avogadro's number.

It says that 1 mole = 6.022 x 10^23 particles

or that:

We can then write the ideal gas law

in terms of number of particles as well:

this introduces Boltzmann's constant

**Kinetic Theory**

The just of Kinetic theory is that

state variables: pressure, temperature,

volume, etc

can be described by atomic variables

microscopic defines macroscopic

There is a bit of a derivation that you can look up, but the first one comes to describe pressure from the motion of little particles.

It leads straight into the energy of a system of an ideal gas. Relating the kinetic energy of a

single molecule

to the state variable of temperature.

microscopic to macroscopic

From this, solve for the velocity.

Each molecule will move in different directions so they square it, then average all those numbers, and square root it, to get what is called the root mean squared velocity.

Note the mass is the mass of one molecule.

Phase diagrams

Note:

solid

liquid

gas

triple point

phase changes

This is when one substance is added into another and it randomly blends in, no mixing just motion of particles

Fick's law describes it to you.

Learn to recognize it. It is a plug and chug equation that uses a table.

**Diffusion**

Area, Distance, concentration difference, and diffusion constant gives rate of diffusion

Calculate the rms speed of helium atoms near the surface of the Sun at a temperature of about 6000 K

Calculate the density of oxygen at 1 atm and 0 C

Expansion

A concrete highway is built of slabs 12 m long (at 12 degrees C) how wide should the expansion cracks between the slabs be to prevent buckling if it ranges to temperatures up to 50 degrees C? (12 x 10^-6 C^-1)

5.5 mm

15 below zero on the Celsius scale is what on the Fahrenheit scale

15 below zero on the Fahrenheit scale is what on the Celsius scale?

-26 C

5 F

"I'm a little confused with the concept of Vrms and where the equation came from."

"What's the difference between kinetic theory and kinematics or are closely they related somehow?"

" Can we thoroughly go over moles? "

"Okay, first of all... zeroth? Anyway, I don't really get how that law is very useful to us. Can we go over it in more depth?"

"I don't understand the kinetic molecular theory equation. "