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Neuman's System Theory

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Laura McCall

on 14 December 2013

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Transcript of Neuman's System Theory

Betty Neuman's Systems Theory
Line of resistance
Normal line of defense
Flexible line of defense
Betty Neuman
born 1924 in
Lowell, Ohio
1947- Diploma from People's Hospital School of Nursing
1957- B.S. in nursing from UCLA
1966- M.S. in nursing from UCLA
1985- Ph.D. in clinical psychology from Pacific Western University
System's Model
Response of the client
Primary, Secondary & Tertiary Interventions
Ability to adapt to the enviornment
Model was influenced by:
WHOLISM
WELLNESS
de Chardin
Von Bertalanfy
Selye
Lazarus
Assumptions of the theory
Used as a guide for nursing interaction with clients
Discusses how each person responds differently to stressors
Each line of defense protects from potential stessors
Each line of defense that is disturbed has normal responses to enviornment
Nursing interventions are based on stressor & patient' response
Each client has 3 levels of defense: primary, secondary, tertiary
Stressors are able break through the line of defense if they are unable to stop the stressor
System based on ability to maintain wellness.
CONC
E
PTS

Person
Enviornment
Health
Nursing
Physiological
Psychological
Sociocultural
Spiritual
Development
Internal
External
Wellness
Illness
Negentropy
Entropy
"A unique profession that is concerned with all variables affecting an individual's response to stress"
-Demirbag, 2012, p 2442
OPEN CONCEPT
Stressors
Intrapersonal
Interpersonal
Extrapersonal
person
family
community
"the whole being, greater than the sum of all parts"
-Haggart, 1993, p. 1915
CORE
Genetic features
Forms the outer barrier to the core & works to buffer the system & prevent stressors from entering
Is the protective barrier of the core & is used
to measure health deviation
Becomes activated when stressors break through the lines of defense & work to stabalize the system
HOMEOSTASIS
illness
wellness
entropy
negentropy
Four Metaparidigms
Nursing Interventions
PRIMARY
SECONDARY
TERTIARY
Before reaction occurs, focuses on health promotion and maintance
occurs after the client reacts to the stressor,
treatment of symptoms and stregthen internal lines of resistance
supports client in adding or reducing energy
so the system can be reconstituted
Purpose of Theory
Show's a person interaction with enviornment
Show's the different defense mechanisms a person uses to create homeostasis
Allows nurses to provide interventions based on type of stressor the client is encountering
Helps identify patient stressors
OPEN
CONCEPT
input
process
output
feedback
Practice:
Generalizability-
Can be used in any healthcare setting
Person can also be family, groups, or community
Uses both broad and narrow definitions
Strengths
Flexible, used in all healthcare settings
The way the theory defines the term person
Health promotion and primary preventions
Weaknesses
The model is used in multiple disciplines, not necessarily specific to nursing
Does not clearly define the boundaries between internal and external stressors
Diagnosis
Goals
Outcomes
Simplicity
Complex yet logical
Concepts overlap
Reference
Butts, J.B. & Rich, K. L. (2011).
Philosophies and Theories for Advanced Nursing Practice
. Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Demirbag, B. (2012). Neuman system model as a conceptual framework for community-based nurses when working with Fibromiyalgia patients.
Healthmed
, 6, 2438-2445.
Gonzalo, A. (2011). Theoretical Foundations of Nursing. Retrieved from http://nursingtheories.weebly.com/betty-neuman.html
Haggart, M. (1993). A critical analysis of Neuman’s systems model in relation to public health nursing. Journal of Advanced Nursing. 18, 1917-1922.
Knight, J. (1990). The Betty Neuman Systems Model applied to practice: a client with multiple sclerosis.
Journal of Advanced Nursing
, 18, 447-455.
Moore, S. L., & Munro, M. F. (1990). The Neuman System Model applied to mental health nursing of older adults.
Journal of Advanced Nursing
, 15, 293-299. Doi:10.1111/1365-2648.ep8529778
The theory is not clear, concise. Not parsimonious.
Some concepts are underfined, no clear boundaries.

-August-Brady, 2000
August-Brady, M. (2000). Prevention as intervention.
Journal of Advanced Nursing
, 31, 1304-1308.
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