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alternative energy systems for buildings

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salman khan

on 14 March 2013

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Transcript of alternative energy systems for buildings

GUIDED BY
PROF.SREELAXMI SWAMY Alternative Energy Systems INTRODUCTION SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT BUILDINGS AND ENERGY GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION NEEDS AND LIMITS SALMAN AHMED KHAN, X SEM,B.ARCH, NU-A9 43758, PIADS Rapidly increasing energy prices, concerns about resource depletion and climate change, and calls for national energy self-sufficiency have concentrated people’s mind s on the role energy plays in our lives. Much of the effort is focused on securing sufficient supplies of oil, gas, etc, at affordable prices, but reducing energy demand at source can be better alternative.
While an individual household may not appear to use much energy, one only has to multiply that by the population figure to appreciate the scale of domestic energy consumption. In India, the domestic sector is responsible for 45 percent primary fuel use, and domestic use of all fuels is increasing; 23.8 percent of annum for electricity, 35 percent for LPG, and 3.7 percent for firewood. Rural India is more dependent on traditional biofuels; on average 55 percent of households in India have access to electricity, this figure falling to 43.5 percent for rural areas. The construction industry is booming, and is one of the largest energy consuming sectors in India. Even a 10 percent reduction in energy use in building would have a significant impact on national energy requirements, and this could be achieved with little or no investment, simply by being more diligent in our use of energy in homes and offices. There are, however, a number of issues relating to building design that should be considered when building a new house, office or hotel, and which will affect the energy consumption. It is therefore of prime importance that an effort should be made to make them as efficient as possible.The impending energy crisis has made it all the more important that steps be taken in this direction without delay. Total Energy Consumption in India by Type in 2008. Source: US Energy Information Administration USER PROCESS SUSTAINABILITY SUSTAINABLE
DEVELOPMENT TO ACHIEVE
ECOLOGICAL
BALANCE METHODS

ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SYSTEMS
PASSIVE METHODS
SOLAR ARCHITECTURE
GREEN ARCHITECTURE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IS THE DEVELOPMENT WHICH MEETS THE NEEDS OF PRESENT WITHOUT COMPROMISING THE ABILITY OF FUTURE GENERATION TO MEET THEIR OWN NEEDS. THE CONCEPT OF NEEDS, COMPRISING OF THE CONDITIONS FOR MAINTAINING AN ACCEPTABLE LIFE STANDARD FOR ALL PEOPLE, AND THE CONCEPT OF LIMITS OF CAPACITY OF THE ENVIRONMENT TO FULFILL THE NEEDS OF PRESENT AND THE FUTURE,DETERMINED BY THE STATE OF TECHNOLOGY AND SOCIAL ORGANIZATION RESOURCES DEMAND RESOURCES DEMAND RESEARCH EFFORTS IN INDIA Research efforts in the field of alternative energy systems have been going around the world since the 50's. In India however steps in this direction were taken only in the late 60's and early 70's.

The Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) is the nodal Ministry of the Government of India for all matters relating to new and renewable energy. The broad aim of the Ministry is to develop and deploy new and renewable energy for supplementing the energy requirements of the country. Creation CASE and Ministry:

Commission for Additional Sources of Energy (CASE) in 1981.
Department of Non-Conventional Energy Sources (DNES) in 1982.
Ministry of Non-Conventional Energy Sources (MNES) in 1992.
Ministry of Non-Conventional Energy Sources (MNES) renamed as Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) in 2006. Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency Limited (IREDA) was set up in march 1987 as the nodal agency for coordinating the efforts of various state energy development agencies which were set up to encourage research into the field and also to popularize the use of alternate energy systems in the country.

The main aim of setting up of IREDA are -
To promote Renewable sources of energy
To extend financial support for generation & conservation of energy
To provide financial support to manufacturers of NRSE systems and devices
To facilitate leasing of NRSE equipment. Gujarat energy development agency (GEDA) has been very active in the promotion of alternative energy systems due to which Gujarat has probably the largest installed capacity of such systems.Other state agencies are also involved in such activities, but have been less successful. Other private and government aided institutions are also currently in such research like -

Sardar Patel Renewable Energy Research Institute (SPRERI)
Anand Solar Energy Center Gurgaon
School of energy studies Pune
Tata Energy Research Institute (TERI)
Center for energy studies,IIT-Delhi. ETC. ALTERNATE ENERGY SYSTEMS SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT ENERGY CONSERVATION ECOLOGICAL BALANCE IS ACHIEVED SOLAR ENERGY / PHOTOVOLTAIC ENERGY

WIND ENERGY

WATER ENERGY / HYDAL ENERGY / HYDRO ENERGY

GEOTHERMAL ENERGY

BIO-FUELS / BIOMASS

FUELL CELLS

CO-GENERATED ENERGY SOLAR ENERGY Solar energy, radiant light and heat from the sun, has been harnessed by humans since ancient times using a range of ever-evolving technologies. Solar energy technologies include solar heating, solar photovoltaic, solar thermal electricity and solar architecture, which can make considerable contributions to solving some of the most urgent problems the world now faces. Solar technologies are broadly characterized as either passive solar or active solar depending on the way they capture, convert and distribute solar energy. Active solar techniques include the use of photovoltaic panels and solar thermal collectors to harness the energy. Passive solar techniques include orienting a building to the Sun, selecting materials with favorable thermal mass or light dispersing properties, and designing spaces that naturally circulate air. ENERGY FROM THE SUN The Earth receives 174 petawatts (PW) of incoming solar radiation (insolation) at the upper atmosphere. Approximately 30% is reflected back to space while the rest is absorbed by clouds, oceans and land masses. The spectrum of solar light at the Earth's surface is mostly spread across the visible and near-infrared ranges with a small part in the near-ultraviolet.

The amount of solar energy reaching the surface of the planet is so vast that in one year it is about twice as much as will ever be obtained from all of the Earth's non-renewable resources of coal, oil, natural gas, and mined uranium combined,

Solar energy can be harnessed at different levels around the world, mostly depending on distance from the equator. APPLICATIONS OF SOLAR TECHNOLOGY Architecture and urban planning
Agriculture and horticulture
Transport and reconnaissance
Day lighting
Water heating
Heating, cooling and ventilation
Water treatment
Cooking
Process heat
Electricity production
Photovoltaic
Fuel production Sunlight has influenced building design since the beginning of architectural history. Advanced solar architecture and urban planning methods were first employed by the Greeks and Chinese, who oriented their buildings toward the south to provide light and warmth.
The common features of passive solar architecture are orientation relative to the Sun, compact proportion (a low surface area to volume ratio), selective shading (overhangs) and thermal mass.When these features are tailored to the local climate and environment they can produce well-lit spaces that stay in a comfortable temperature range. Socrates' Megaron House is a classic example of passive solar design.The most recent approaches to solar design use computer modeling tying together solar lighting, heating and ventilation systems in an integrated solar design package.Active solar equipment such as pumps, fans and switchable windows can complement passive design and improve system performance. Architecture and urban planning Day lighting The history of lighting is dominated by the use of natural light. The Romans recognized a right to light as early as the 6Th century and English law echoed these judgments with the Prescription Act of 1832. In the 20Th century artificial lighting became the main source of interior illumination but day lighting techniques and hybrid solar lighting solutions are ways to reduce energy consumption. Water heating Solar hot water systems use sunlight to heat water. In low geographical latitudes (below 40 degrees) from 60 to 70% of the domestic hot water use with temperatures up to 60 °C can be provided by solar heating systems. The most common types of solar water heaters are evacuated tube collectors (44%) and glazed flat plate collectors (34%) generally used for domestic hot water; and unglazed plastic collectors (21%) used mainly to heat swimming pools. Heating, cooling and ventilation Thermal mass is any material that can be used to store heat—heat from the Sun in the case of solar energy. Common thermal mass materials include stone, cement and water. Historically they have been used in arid climates or warm temperate regions to keep buildings cool by absorbing solar energy during the day and radiating stored heat to the cooler atmosphere at night. However they can be used in cold temperate areas to maintain warmth as well. The size and placement of thermal mass depend on several factors such as climate, daylighting and shading conditions. When properly incorporated, thermal mass maintains space temperatures in a comfortable range and reduces the need for auxiliary heating and cooling equipment. Water treatment Solar distillation can be used to make saline or brackish water potable. The first recorded instance of this was by 16th century Arab alchemists. A large-scale solar distillation project was first constructed in 1872 in the Chilean mining town of Las Salinas.The plant, which had solar collection area of 4,700 m2, could produce up to 22,700 L per day and operated for 40 years.Individual still designs include single-slope, double-slope (or greenhouse type), vertical, conical, inverted absorber, multi-wick, and multiple effect. These stills can operate in passive, active, or hybrid modes. Double-slope stills are the most economical for decentralized domestic purposes, while active multiple effect units are more suitable for large-scale applications. Darmstadt University of Technology in Germany won the 2007 Solar Decathlon in Washington, D.C. with this passive house designed specifically for the humid and hot subtropical climate. Greenhouses like these in the Westland municipality of the Netherlands grow vegetables, fruits and flowers. Australia hosts the World Solar Challenge where solar cars like the Nuna3 race through a 3,021 km (1,877 mi) course from Darwin to Adelaide. Daylighting features such as this oculus at the top of the Pantheon, in Rome, Italy have been in use since antiquity. Solar water heaters facing the Sun to maximize gain. Solar House #1 of Massachusetts Institute of Technology in the United States, built in 1939, used Seasonal thermal energy storage (STES) for year-round heating. Solar water disinfection in Indonesia Small scale solar powered sewerage treatment plant. The Solar Bowl in Auroville, India, concentrates sunlight on a movable receiver to produce steam for cooking. The PS10 concentrates sunlight from a field of heliostats on a central tower. Solar Two's thermal storage system generated electricity during cloudy weather and at night. WORKING Energy storage methods Solar energy is not available at night, and energy storage is an important issue because modern energy systems usually assume continuous availability of energy.

Thermal mass systems can store solar energy in the form of heat at domestically useful temperatures for daily or seasonal durations. Thermal storage systems generally use readily available materials with high specific heat capacities such as water, earth and stone. Well-designed systems can lower peak demand, shift time-of-use to off-peak hours and reduce overall heating and cooling requirements. Phase change materials such as paraffin wax and Glauber's salt are another thermal storage media. These materials are inexpensive, readily available, and can deliver domestically useful temperatures (approximately 64 °C). The "Dover House" (in Dover, Massachusetts) was the first to use a Glauber's salt heating system, in 1948.Solar energy can be stored at high temperatures using molten salts. Salts are an effective storage medium because they are low-cost, have a high specific heat capacity and can deliver heat at temperatures compatible with conventional power systems. The Solar Two used this method of energy storage, allowing it to store 1.44 TJ in its 68 m3 storage tank with an annual storage efficiency of about 99%. OFF grid PV systems have traditionally used rechargeable batteries to store excess electricity. With grid-tied systems, excess electricity can be sent to the transmission grid, while standard grid electricity can be used to meet shortfalls. Net metering programs give household systems a credit for any electricity they deliver to the grid. This is often legally handled by 'rolling back' the meter whenever the home produces more electricity than it consumes. If the net electricity use is below zero, the utility is required to pay for the extra at the same rate as they charge consumers.Other legal approaches involve the use of two meters, to measure electricity consumed vs. electricity produced. This is less common due to the increased installation cost of the second meter.

Pumped-storage hydroelectricity stores energy in the form of water pumped when energy is available from a lower elevation reservoir to a higher elevation one. The energy is recovered when demand is high by releasing the water to run through a hydroelectric power generator. This stored electrical energy then can be used at night.SPV can be used for a number of applications such as:

DOMESTIC LIGHTING

STREET LIGHTING

PROVIDING ELECTRICITY TO VILLAGES

WATER PUMPING

DESALINATION OF SALTY WATER

POWERING OF REMOTE TELECOMMUNICATION REPEATER STATIONS

RAILWAY SIGNALS. Parabolic Trough Parabolic Dish Solar Power Tower BIOMASS The term "biomass" refers to organic matter that has stored energy through the process of photosynthesis. It exists in one form as plants and may be transferred through the food chain to animals' bodies and their wastes, all of which can be converted for everyday human use through processes such as combustion, which releases the carbon dioxide stored in the plant material. Many of the biomass fuels used today come in the form of wood products, dried vegetation, crop residues, and aquatic plants. Biomass has become one of the most commonly used renewable sources of energy in the last two decades, second only to hydropower in the generation of electricity. It is such a widely utilized source of energy, probably due to its low cost and indigenous nature, that it accounts for almost 15% of the world's total energy supply and as much as 35% in developing countries, mostly for cooking and heating. there are seven ways energy is produced by biomass Combustion From Forestry and Agriculture Residues, Pulp and Paper residues into heat and power.

How:

The burning of the resource to produce high pressure steam that turns a turbine connected to a generator. Electricity is then produced from the generator. Gasification From forestry and agriculture residues, municipal wastes into syngas*, fuel or chemical feedstock.

How:
Heating of solid biomass at high temperatures in a oxygen-deprived environment to produce fuel gas.

syngas: carbon monoxide and hydrogen 1 2 3 Pryolysis From forestry and agriculture residues into bio-oils and products.

How:
Rapidly heating the resource at high temperatures in an environment with the absence of oxygen. Produces vapours from the decomposition. The vapour condenses and forms liquid fuel. 4 Fermentation From starch and cellulose components to bioethanol.

How:
Distillation (E.X Brewing) process of using sugars from sugar crops or starch in cereal grain and corn. 5 Transerterification Variety of new and use vegetable oils and other agricultural crops and residues to bio-diesel. How:
The process in which vegetable or animal fats are treated with sodium hydroxide and methanol to produce glycerine and fatty acid methyl esters. 6 Anaerobic Digestion The conversion of manures, food processing residues and organic fraction of municipal waste into methan rich biogas.

How:
Natural process where biomass is decomposed by bacteria in an air free environment. AD occurs in landfills and treats certain fractions of municpal waste water and other industrial waste waters. 7 Co-Firing Biomass products to produce electricity

How:
Burning of biomass with coal in traditional power plant boilers. Most economic way to produce biomass because there are existing power plants that can be reused. Reduces the use of coal and lowers emissions of carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides. In Summary The different applications of Biomass:

Burned directly to produce heat and/or electricity
Converted biochemically to produce liquid fuel
Digested or gasified to produce gaseous fuel
Pyrolized to produce oils and high value chemicals.
These terms are called: Thermal, thermochemical, and biochemical THIS ENERGY CAN BE USED FOR:
COOKING
MECHANICAL APPLICATIONS/PUMPING
POWER GENERATION
TRANSPORTATION DEVICES:

BIOGAS PLANT
GASIFIER ENGINE PUMP SETS
STIRLING ENGINE PUMP SETS BIOGAS PLANT Domestic biogas plants convert livestock manure and night soil into biogas and slurry, the fermented manure. This technology is feasible for small holders with livestock producing 50 kg manure per day, an equivalent of about 6 pigs or 3 cows. This manure has to be collectable to mix it with water and feed it into the plant. Toilets can be connected. Another precondition is the temperature that affects the fermentation process. With an optimum at 36 C° the technology especially applies for those living in a (sub) tropical climate. This makes the technology for small holders in developing countries often suitable. Selection of Appropriate Design In developing countries, the design selection is determined largely be the prevailing design in the region, which, in turn takes the climatic, economic and substrate specific conditions into consideration. Large plants are designed on a case-to-case basis. Typical design criteria are: Space: determines mainly the decision if the fermenter is above-ground or underground, if it is to be constructed as an upright cylinder or as a horizontal plant. Existing structures may be used like a liquid manure tank, an empty hall or a steel container. To reduce costs, the planner may need to adjust the design to theses existing structures. Minimizing costs can be an important design parameter, especially when the monetary benefits are expected to be low. In this case a flexible cover of the digester is usually the cheapest solution. Minimizing costs is often opposed to maximizing gas yield. Available substrate determines not only the size and shape of mixing pit but the digester volume (retention time!), the heating and agitation devices. Agitation through gas injection is only feasible with homogenous substrate and a dry matter content below 5%. Mechanical agitation becomes problematic above 10% dry matter. A balloon plant Horizontal biogas plants EARTH PIT PLANTS Ferrocement Plants Biogas Digester Types Wet fermentation:
Fixed-dome plants
Floating-drum plants
Low-Cost Polyethylene Tube Digester
Balloon plants

Dry fermentation:
... Fixed-dome Plants Fixed dome plant Nicarao design:
1. Mixing tank with inlet pipe and sand trap.
2. Digester.
3. Compensation and removal tank.
4. Gasholder.
5. Gaspipe.
6. Entry hatch, with gastight seal.
7. Accumulation of thick sludge.
8. Outlet pipe.
9. Reference level.
10. Supernatant scum, broken up by varying level. Types of Fixed-dome Plants Chinese fixed-dome plant
Janata model
Deenbandhu
CAMARTEC model Water-jacket plant with external guide frame:
1 Mixing pit,
11 Fill pipe,
2 Digester,
3 Gasholder,
31 Guide frame,
4 Slurry store,
5 Gas pipe Types of Floating-drum Plants KVIC model
Pragati model
Ganesh model
floating-drum plantfloating-
BORDA model Low-Cost Polyethylen Tube Digester FUEL CELLS Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that convert the chemical energy of a fuel directly and very efficiently into electricity (DC) and heat,thus doing away with combustion. fuel cells for power generation India has a large gap between the demand and supply of power.

Conventional large scale power plants use non renewable fuels with significant adverse ecological and environmental impacts.Fuel cell system are excellent candidates for small scale decentralized power generation.

Fuel cells can supply combined heat and power to commercial buildings,hospitals,airports and military installation at remote locations.Fuel cells have efficiency levels up to 55% as compared to 35% of conventional power plants. GEOTHERMAL ENERGY The core of the earth is very hot and it is possible to make use of this geothermal energy These are areas where there are volcanoes,hot springs,geysers,methane under water in the oceans and seas. In some countries such as in the USA water is pumped from underground hot water deposits and used to heat peoples houses. Form of energy - Thermal

This energy is being used for - Heating and Power generation

Devices - Heat exchanger,Steam turbines WIND ENERGY Wind power is the conversion of wind energy into a useful form of energy, such as using: wind turbines to make electrical power, windmills for mechanical power, windpumps for water pumping or drainage, or sails to propel ships. Five nations - Germany,USA,Denmark,Spain and India account for 80% of the worlds installed wind energy capacity.Wind energy continues to be a fastest growing renewable energy source with world wide wind power installed capacity reaching 14000 MW form of energy - kinetic energy

The energy is used for - Sailing ships, pumping water,Grinding Grains, Power generation

Devices - Sails,windmills,Wind turbines The design of Auroville multi-blade windmill has evolved from the practical experience gained in operating these mills over a period of 20 years or so.It has a high tripod tower and its double action pump increases water output by about 60% compared to the conventional single action pumps. TIDAL ENERGY Tidal power, also called tidal energy, is a form of hydropower that converts the energy of tides into useful forms of power - mainly electricity. New environmental laws affected by the danger of global warming have made energy from small hydropower plants more relevant. These small hydropower plants can serve the energy needs of remote rural areas independently. Energy from sea - Ocean thermal, tidal and wave energy. Large amounts of solar energy is stored in the oceans and seas.On an average,the 60 million square kilometer of the tropical seas absorb solar radiation equivalent to the heat content of 245 million barrels of oil. Scientist feel that if this energy can be trapped a large source of energy will be available to the tropical countries.The process of harnessing this energy is called OTEC (OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION) Form of energy - kinetic/potential energy

The energy is used for - power generation

Devices - Turbine generators Tidal fences CO-GENERATION Cogeneration (also combined heat and power, CHP) is the use of a heat engine[1] or a power station to simultaneously generate both electricity and useful heat. Since co-generation can meet both power and heat needs,it has other advantages as well in the form significant cost savings for plants and reduction in emissions of pollutants due to reduced fuel consumption. A cogeneration plant in Metz, France. The 45MW boiler uses waste wood biomass as energy source, and provides electricity and heat for 30,000 dwellings. CASE STUDY RALEGAON SIDDHI A MODEL INDIAN VILLAGE Ralegan Siddhi is a village in Parner taluka of Ahmednagar District, Maharashtra state in western India. It is located at a distance of 87 km from Pune. The village has an area of 982.31 ha (1991). It is considered a model of environmental conservation. The village has carried out programs like tree planting, terracing to reduce soil erosion and digging canals to retain rainwater. For energy, the village uses solar power, biogas (some generated from the community toilet) and a windmill. The project is heralded as a sustainable model of a village republic.

The village's biggest accomplishment is in its use of non-conventional energy. For example, all the village street lights each have separate solar panels.There are four community biogas plant and one of them is fitted to the community toilet.There is large windmill used for pumping water.A number of household have their own biogas plants. The village is self sufficient.The village is headed by a Sarpanch who is the chief of the Gram Panchayat (village panchayat). Watershed development In 1975 the village was afflicted by drought, poverty prevailed, and trade in illicit liquor was widespread. The village tank could not hold water as the embankment dam wall leaked. Work began with the percolation tank construction. Hazare encouraged the villagers to donate their labour to repair the embankment. Once this was fixed, the seven wells below filled with water in the summer for the first time in memory.
Now the village has water year round, as well as a grain bank, a milk bank, and a school. There is no longer any poverty. solar panels on roof watershed BIBLIOGRAPHY WIKIPEDIA

PROJECT REPORT BY MANJUNATH HATWAR (JJCOA)

SUSTAINABLE HOUSING PRINCIPLES

ALTERNATE ENERGY SYSTEMS

GREEN ARCHITECTURE - JOURNAL OF IIA JULY 2004

ENERGY EFFICIENT BUILDINGS IN INDIA

MAN,CLIMATE AND ARCHITECTURE Off-Grid (Stand Alone) Off-Grid (stand-alone) systems are used when a completely independent or "stand alone" system is needed. Since no grid power is used, the system must be carefully designed based on power usage, peak demand and seasonal solar variations. Batteries are typically used to provide power at night, in low sun or high electric demand conditions. These systems are ideal for remote locations where no utilities exist. On-Grid (Grid Connected) On-Grid (Grid-Connected) systems are the most popular and use special inverters to allow electricity to flow safely back into the electric grid. When solar power is generated, this power is typically first used by the building, and then surplus electricity can actually flow back into the grid, giving full retail credit per kilowatt-hour from your utility provider. Advantages and Benefits of Biogas Provides a non-polluting and renewable source of energy.
Efficient way of energy conversion (saves fuelwood).
Saves women and children from drudgery of collection and carrying of firewood, exposure to smoke in the kitchen, and time consumed for cooking and cleaning of utensils.
Produces enriched organic manure, which can supplement or even replace chemical fertilizers.
Leads to improvement in the environment, and sanitation and hygiene.
Provides a source for decentralized power generation.
Leads to employment generation in the rural areas.
Household wastes and bio-wastes can be disposed of usefully and in a healthy manner.
The technology is cheaper and much simpler than those for other bio-fuels, and it is ideal for small scale application.
Dilute waste materials (2-10% solids) can be used as in feed materials.
Any biodegradable matter can be used as substrate.
Anaerobic digestion inactivates pathogens and parasites, and is quite effective in reducing the incidence of water borne diseases.
Environmental benefits on a global scale: Biogas plants significantly lower the greenhouse effects on the earth’s atmosphere. The plants lower methane emissions by entrapping the harmful gas and using it as fuel. Disadvantages of Biogas The process is not very attractive economically (as compared to other biofuels) on a large industrial scale.
It is very difficult to enhance the efficiency of biogas systems.
Biogas contains some gases as impurities, which are corrosive to the metal parts of internal combustion engines.
Not feasible to locate at all the locations. Solar Power-Advantages and Disadvantages Advantage: Solar energy is a completely renewable resource. This means that even when we cannot make use of the sun’s power because of nighttime or cloudy and stormy days, we can always rely on the sun showing up the very next day as a constant and consistent power source.

Disadvantage: The Solar Cells and Solar Panels that are needed to harness solar energy tend to be very expensive when you first purchase them. Advantage: Oil, which is what most people currently use to power their homes, is not a renewable resource. This means that as soon as the oil is gone, it is gone forever and we will no longer have power or energy.
Disadvantage: Solar power cannot be harnessed during a storm, on a cloudy day or at night. This limits how much power can be saved for future days. Some days you may still need to rely on oil to power your home. Advantage: Solar cells make absolutely no noise at all. They do not make a single peep while extracting useful energy from the sun. On the other hand, the giant machines utilized for pumping oil are extremely noisy and therefore very impractical. Advantage: Solar energy creates absolutely no pollution. This is perhaps the most important advantage that makes solar energy so much more practical than oil. Oil burning releases harmful greenhouses gases, carcinogens and carbon dioxide into our precious air. Advantage: Very little maintenance is required to keep solar cells running. There are no moving parts in a solar cell, which makes it impossible to really hurt them. Solar cells tend to last a good long time with only an annual cleaning to worry about. Advantage: Solar panels and solar lighting may seem quite expensive when you first purchase it, but in the long run you will find yourself saving quite a great deal of money. After all, it does not cost anything to harness the power of the sun. Unfortunately, paying for oil is an expensive prospect and the cost is still rising consistently. Why pay for expensive energy when you can harness it freely? Advantage: Solar powered panels and products are typically extremely easy to install. Wires, cords and power sources are not needed at all, making this an easy prospect to employ. Advantage: Solar power technology is improving consistently over time, as people begin to understand all of the benefits offered by this incredible technology. As our oil reserves decline, it is important for us to turn to alternative sources for energy. Case of Govardhan Eco-village Cost of construction of a Biogas plant

It costs Rs. 7500 – 8000 per cu.m capacity of biogas plant. The cost for generator room, balloon room, gas storage balloon and in feed storage room is separate. Replacement values of different fuels by 1 m3 of biogas

S.No Type of Fuel Replacement Value
1 Alcohol 1.1 liter
2 Butane 0.43 Kg
3 Cattle dung cake 12.30 Kg
4 Charcoal 1.4 Kg
5 Crude Oil 0.62 liter
6 Diesel Oil 0.52 liter
7 Electricity 4.7 KWh
8 Firewood 3.47 Kg
9 Gasoline 0.8 liter
10 Kerosene 0.62 liter
11 LPG 0.45 Kg
12 Soft Coal 1.6 Kg
13 Town gas 1.5 m3 A 10 m3 Biogas plant will produce gas equivalent to 10 LPG cylinders of 14.2 kg per month. Consumption of Biogas

Use Specification Quantity of gas consumed (m3/hr)
Cooking 2″ burner 0.33
4″ burner 0.47
6″ burner 0.64
per person per day 0.24 m3/day

Gas lighting 100 Candle Power 0.13
mantle lamp of

Duel fuel engine 75-80% replacement of
diesel oil per B.H.P. 0.50

Electricity 1 kWh 0.75 Government subsidies Power generation
capacity Biogas plant
capacity Maximum support for
preparation of Detailed
Project Report (DPR) CFA/subsidy limited to
the following ceiling or
40% of the cost of the
system whichever is less. 3-20 kW 25 m3 to 85 m3 No DPR required Rs. 40,000 per kW >20 kW to 100 kW Any combination of
above plants or alternate
capacity/design Rs. 20,000 per plant Rs. 35,000 per kW >100 kW to 250 kW Any combination of above
plants or alternate
capacity/design Rs. 1,00,000 per plant
above 100 kW Rs. 30,000 per kW Service charges to state nodal department/agencies for providing technical, supervision, training, support and to initiate action on power purchase agreement with state electricity board, etc. 10% of the CFA 15% of the CFA (upto 20 kW capacity for which no assistance for DPR is provided) 10% of the CFA (20 kW – 250 kW)
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