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Niger

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by

Evan Youngberg

on 6 December 2013

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Transcript of Niger

Developing Niger
Preparing Presentation:
• Brief History-Joseph
• Cultural/Ethnic Make-up of country-Kaliey
• Social conditions (education, health, etc)-Roshni
• Development level (economic indicators, natural resources, etc)-Jana
• Political system-Jana
• Any current development/aid programs in the country now (IMF, World Bank, NGO’s, etc)-Roshni
• Major problems facing your country currently that you want to address-Evan
• What your country has to offer that may aid in the plan to develop?-Evan

Political System
Mixed legal system of civil law (based on French civil law), Islamic law, and customary law

Capital: Niamey

Executive Branch:
consists of a president, prime minister, and cabinet
Legislative Branch:
unicameral national assembly (113 seats)
Judicial Branch:
constitutional court (7 members), high court of justice (7 members)

Political Pressures: The Nigerien Movement for Justice or MNJ, a Tuareg rebel group

Major Problems to Address
-Desertification is taking fertile land away from farmers and leaving them in absolute poverty (Sahara Desert occupies 80% of Niger)
-Many Nigeriens are hungry
-Niger is the poorest country in the world, with 91% of people living below the poverty line
-Most children are out of school and the illiteracy rate is very high
-Health services are poor, causing an extremely high infant mortality rate and low life expectancy
-Niger has the highest birthrate in the world
-Many people do not have electrical power and none of it comes from renewable sources
-Small percentage of the labor force working in industry
Important Facts
-Area: 1.267 million sq km total, only 300 sq km is water
-
Natural resources include uranium, coal, iron ore, tin, phosphates, gold, molybdenum, gypsum, salt, petroleum
-11.79% is arable land (149,379.3 sq km) and only 736.6 sq km is irrigated
-Total renewable water resources is 33.65 cu km
-Northern four-fifths is desert, southern one-fifth is savanna
-80% of Nigeriens are Muslim
-Population is 16,899,327 (64th highest in the world)
-50% of people are 0-14 years old
-Dependency ratio is 111.5%
-Population growth rate is 3.32% (6th highest in the world)
-Birth rate is 46.84 births/1,000 population (1st in the world)
-Death rate is 13.07 deaths/1,000 population (21st in the world)
-Infant mortality rate is 87.98 deaths/1,000 live births (7th in the world)
-Life expectancy is 54.34 years (207th in the world)
-Total fertility rate is 7.03 children per woman
-Total literacy rate is 28.7%
-School life expectancy only 5 years
-GDP is $13.34 billion (145 in world)
-GDP per capita only $800 (221 in world)
-Industries: uranium mining, cement, brick, soap, textiles, food processing, chemicals, slaughterhouses
-GDP real growth rate 11.2% (4th in world)
-Industry only 6%
-63% of people below poverty line
-Electricity from fossil fuels is 100% of total installed capacity
Solutions:
-Sustainable energy (solar power)
Invest in large-scale mining of uranium because uranium is a valuable resource Niger has to offer (more jobs and income for Niger)
Make fertilizers and GMOs cheap for Niger to buy
Invest in a healthcare system mainly to reduce IMR and birthrate
Invest in many schools and libraries dispersed throughout the country
Expand industries in north, agriculture in south (more jobs)
Improve transportation to transport food
Development Level
-HDI: 0.304 (very low human development)
-GDP per capita: $800
-Total literacy rate is 28.7%
-Birth rate is 46.84 births/1,000 population (1st in the world)
-Infant mortality rate is 87.98 deaths/1,000 live births (7th in the world)
-Life expectancy is 54.34 years (207th in the world)
- Labor force:
agriculture: 90%
industry: 6%
services: 4% (1995)
-Industries:
Uranium mining, cement, brick, soap, textiles, food processing, chemicals, slaughterhouses
-Natural resources:
Uranium, coal, iron ore, tin, phosphates, gold, molybdenum, gypsum, salt, petroleum

Overall, the development level in Niger is very low.
The general state of health in the country is poor. Health services concentrate on the eradication of certain diseases in rural areas, as well as on health education. Major public health problems identified by the Niger Government include malaria, diarrhea diseases, acute respiratory infections, malnutrition and HIV/AIDS/STD. These are exacerbated by prevailing poverty in rural areas where the majority of the people live. Access to potable water and essential health services in the country are limited.
Ethnic Makeup
Largest ethnic groups are Hausa and Zarma Songhay
Both groups are sedentary farmers (live in arable southern area)
The Kanouri is another major ethnicity and makes up majority of population in the southeast
Hausa ethnic group is also found in Nigeria
Nigeria and Niger lifestyles have had increasing ethnic conflicts recently (mainly fighting over natural resources)
Social Conditions
Development Aid
The world bank has invested about $800 million in Niger. However, this is not nearly enough for Niger to develop. The average aid Niger receives in a year is $43 per person. More aid is needed to put Niger on the path of development.
Information on Niger and its Problems
Brief History
Our Plan
During the 14th century, the nomadic Tuaregs were the first inhabitants in the Sahara region, which is now called Niger.
Niger was incorporated into French West Africa in 1896. The French colonized Niger in 1922. In 1960 Niger proclaimed its independence.
During the 1970s, Niger's economy flourished due to uranium production, but when uranium prices fell in the 1980s, its brief period of prosperity ended. The drought of 1968 -1975 devastated Niger. As a result, 2 million people were left in starvation.
As of today, Niger is ranked last on the Human Development Index.
Redistrict Farmland
The southern fifth of Niger contains arable land while the northern part is all desert. If all farmland is moved to only the southern portion and farther away from the Sahara, food production will increase and farmers will stop losing their farms to desertification. This will provide more food to feed the hungry population and help farmers keep their job. However, this will require major roads to be built so that food can be distributed to the north. We decided to spend $200 million on building the extensive infrastructure required to move all the farmland to the southern portion and to distribute food to the north.
Increase Food Production
Build Schools!
Build Hospitals
Expand Uranium Industry
Make Solar Energy Available
Two major issues with the population in Niger is the infant mortality rate and high birth rate. The high birth rate is most likely a result of the high mortality rate. In order to decrease the infant mortality rate and therefore the birth rate, more hospitals need to be built and the ones already existing need to be better funded. Once the birthrate decreases, it will help Niger develop because their population will not expand quite as rapidly. Most hospitals would be built in the southern part because most Nigeriens live there. We would spend $150 million building hospitals in Niger.
Many Nigeriens lack access to electricity. Fortunately, solar power can solve this issue. In the Saharan part of Niger we would build solar power farms because there is not much development there. We would install underground wires to make the electricity available to people in the south. Also, individual solar panels can be handed out to those who are not hooked up to the main grid. In this way Niger can become more developed by providing many of its citizens with electricity. We would allocate $100 million in providing solar power to the Nigeriens.
One important resource Niger has that will help development is uranium. Because many developed countries use nuclear energy, uranium will be worth more as supplies diminish. Expanding the uranium industry would help Niger develop immensely because it would bring in more money from developed countries and provide more jobs for the Nigeriens. Uranium is found here in Niger. We plan on spending $200 million to expand uranium mining.
If Niger's arable land is better utilized, food production will increase and less Nigeriens will be hungry. Food production can be increased by purchasing fertilizers and GM seeds from developed countries and giving them to Niger. We plan to spend $150 million on purchasing the fertilizers and GM seeds for Niger.
Conclusion
Overall, Niger is an underdeveloped country. It needs financial aid to work its way towards development. Niger does have valuable things to offer, such as uranium. With a billion dollars and our plan to develop Niger, Niger will become a more developed and productive country that can benefit the global economy. Please vote for our plan to help develop Niger!
Education is extremely important and literacy rates are low (28.7%)
Increase the amount of years children attend to increase literacy rate and education
Invest $200 million in building more school in Niger
Lead to better choices and opportunities in future
Benefit the global economy
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