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PHOTOJOURNALISM

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by

Daria Sukharchuk

on 4 January 2015

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Transcript of PHOTOJOURNALISM

The article with the violent image (A) had more varied emotional responses in comparison to the other groups.
Perception
1. Did the article evoke any particular emotion(s) in you?

A5: “I do not live=I do not care”
A5: “Those bloody countries…”


2. Do you sympathize with one of the nations?

B3: “I don’t think I have the necessary knowledge about the conflict to choose a side.”
A1: “The South Koreans were gay, lol. The Japanese were very official.”
3. What are your attitudes/thoughts about the protest described in the article.

A8: “Protests made one feel their ‘pain’.”
C6: “Protests are legitimate democratic tool. I can’t really know if the core of the protest is to provoke or offend, but either way it’s still a democratic tool of voice.”
B7: “The article was biased against the Japanese describing it as a celebration, whereas the Koreans were described as protesters”.
B7: “It was pretty strange the Korean protesters was singing and dancing.”
Quotes
Far fewer of the no-image group (C) perceived the article as biased, compared to the other two groups.

The groups with photos (both violent and neutral) are more likely to perceive the article as biased.
While all three groups had the highest results in the “emotionally indifferent” category, the group with no photo (C) was far more likely (almost double) to be emotionally indifferent to the article.
Recall
Overall, group A (violent image) had the best recall of the article
Introduction
Literature Review
Theoretical Framework
Hypotheses

H1) Exposure to (violent) images will affect the way the participants interpret the article both in terms of attitude and recall


H2) Exposure to images in general will increase the participants recall of the article
H3) Violent image? Even more!


Exposure to the violent image will have a negative effect on the participant's attitude towards
H4) the issue in general
H5) the depicted country
H6) the protest/protesters

H7) Exposure to the violent image will increase the emotional response to the article

Research Design
Methodology
Key Findings
Limitations
Conclusion
More violent photos increased negative reactions to protest.
Violence did not affect attitudes toward protest when participants were not interested in the issue.

It is the more the news story is reported rather than the photographs that increases the exposure of a protest story.
When protesters are shown as more deviant, the reaction is more negative.
The more negative the reaction to the photo, the less attention and comprehension of the news story.
Photographic Depiction of Normative Deviance and Informational Utility as Predictors of Protest News Exposure, Related Perceptions, and Story Comprehension
by Laura M. Arpan
News Coverage of Social Protests and the Effects of Photographs and Prior Attitudes
by Laura M. Arpan
Experiment
: Articles either featured no photograph, an innocuous photograph, or a photograph depicting others’ impending or manifest victimization.

The text of articles accompanied by photographs, especially by photographs depicting victimization, were read for longer periods of time.
Respondents understood the text better with the presence of photos-especially those of victimization
Effects of Photographs on the Selective Reading of News Reports

by Dolf Zillmann
Experiment
: Comparing how participants’ perceptions of Saudi Arabia differed when they were exposed only to the text of the article, only to its photographs or to both text and photographs, using focus group interviews.

Participants exposed only to the text saw it as a cohesive narrative.
The ‘photos only’ groups tended to jump between photographs without a linear pattern.
The ‘text and photos’ groups perceived the photo story as composed of two competing narratives, which made them uncomfortable.
Readers exposed to the visual narrative – even when combined with the textual narrative expressed more stereotypical views of the subjects than those exposed to the text only.
Readers' interpretations of visual and verbal narratives of a National Geographic story on Saudi Arabia
by Andrew L. Mendelson and Fabienne
Experiment
: Experimental asset of the relative influence of visual and verbal exemplars on news readers’ judgments of the use of emergency room health care services by undocumented immigrants and uninsured U.S. citizens.

News reports that present an equal number of exemplars supporting each side of a story could still bias the readers’ perceptions of the topic depending on the visual or verbal presenting of the story
No inherent difference between exemplar modalities (visual vs. verbal)
Is a Picture Worth a Thousand Words? The Effect of Race-Related Visual and Verbal Exemplars on Attitudes and Support for Social Policies

by Riva Tukachinsky, Dana Mastro, and Aimee King
Framing
: “It is based on the assumption that how an issue is characterized in news reports can have an influence on how it is understood by audiences.”
Protest Paradigm
: “Framing as a theoretical explanation for how news coverage typically results in negative evaluations of protesters and social issues”
Elaboration Likelihood Model
: “News consumers with existing, strong attitudes toward protests in general, a particular protest group, or a social issue would be less susceptible to story frames and visuals”
Dual-Coding
: Easier to remember pictures as they are more likely to be encoded both as images and as verbal traces.
Framing, Agenda Setting, and Priming: The Evolution of Three Media Effects Models by Dietram A. Scheufele & David Tewksbury
News Coverage of Social Protests and the Effects of Photographs and Prior Attitudes by Laura M. Arpan
News Coverage of Social Protests and the Effects of Photographs and Prior Attitudes by Laura M. Arpan
Picture Superiority in Free Recall: Imagery or Dual Coding? by Allan Paivio
Attitude
Subjects
: 24 Danish students from Aarhus University divided into 3 groups
Duration
: 30 minutes
Location
: State library, Media Library, Kollegium
Procedure
:
briefing
preliminary survey
reading of the article
10 min break to solve a puzzle
open-ended surveys
English language
Small sample
Open-ended questions
is not our participant's native language - harder to understand the text and answer questions and difference in level of English among participants
can not be subject to statistical testing
}
possible coding errors
Why?
Documented rise in importance of photos accompanying protest articles both in size and scope.

How do they impact the readers
No control for our subjects' major -
which is a possible 3rd variable
- How are readers affected?
- Do different types of images (violent vs. nonviolent) affect them in the same way?
- What about news articles without images?
- Media coverage analysis
- Feasible theoretical frameworks
The neutral image group (B) was more likely to support the protest in general.
by a large margin, but there is a slightly higher rate of sympathy for South Korea consistently through all three groups.
when the

was presented. The groups with a violent and no image (A and C) were also more likely not to support the dispute.
Attitudes toward the countries are generally neutral
Attitudes toward the dispute are more neutral
neutral or no image
Background
Academic Void
Photo depiction of protests in news articles
GET THE PICTURE?
Questionnaires
News Article
Literature
Experiment

Confirmatory and exploratory

Random sampling




Three groups:
Group A: Exposed to violent image
Group B: Exposed to neutral image (control group)
Group C: No image
Arpan, L. M. and T\"Uz\"Unkan, F. 2011. Photographic Depiction of Normative Deviance and Informational Utility as Predictors of Protest News Exposure, Related Perceptions, and Story Comprehension. Mass Communication and Society, 14 (2), pp. 178--195.

Arpan, L. M., Baker, K., Lee, Y., Jung, T., Lorusso, L. and Smith, J. 2006. News coverage of social protests and the effects of photographs and prior attitudes. Mass Communication \& Society, 9 (1), pp. 1--20.

Basil, M. D. 1996. Standpoint: The use of student samples in communication research. Taylor \& Francis.

Mendelson, A. L. and Darling-Wolf, F. 2009. Readers’ interpretations of visual and verbal narratives of a National Geographic story on Saudi Arabia. Journalism, 10 (6), pp. 798--818.

Paivio, A. and Csapo, K. 1973. Picture superiority in free recall: Imagery or dual coding?. Cognitive psychology, 5 (2), pp. 176--206.

Scheufele, D. A. 1999. Framing as a theory of media effects. Journal of communication, 49 (1), pp. 103--122.

Scheufele, D. A. and Tewksbury, D. 2007. Framing, Agenda Setting, and Priming: The Evolution of Three Media Effects Models. Journal of Communication, 0021 (9916), p. 17.

Tukachinsky, R., Mastro, D. and King, A. 2011. Is a picture worth a thousand words? The effect of race-related visual and verbal exemplars on attitudes and support for social policies. Mass Communication and Society, 14 (6), pp. 720--742.

Zillmann, D., Knobloch, S. and Yu, H. 2001. Effects of photographs on the selective reading of news reports. Media Psychology, 3 (4), pp. 301--324.
Research Question
How does the inclusion and nature of a photograph with a protest news story affect readers' attitudes and recollection of the story?
Coding
Qualitative data
Attitude
Recall
Ariane Osman
Daria Sukharchuk
Fenne van Loon
Mark Kushin
Meng Wu
Zoe Robertson
Quantitative analysis
H1 Exposure to (violent) images will affect the way the participants interpret the article both in terms of attitude and recall


H2) Exposure to images in general will increase the participants recall of the article

H3) Exposure to a violent image will increase the participants recall of the article even more


H4) Exposure to the violent image will have a negative effect on the participant's attitude towards the issue in general

H5) Exposure to the violent image will have a negative effect on the participant's attitude toward the depicted country (SK)

H6) Exposure to the violent image will have a negative effect on the participant’s attitudes towards the protest/protesters

H7) Exposure to the violent image will increase the emotional response to the article
Plausible
Partially plausible
Plausible
Plausible
Implausible
Imlausible
Plausible
Recall
Attitude

In General
Recall
Attitudes
Previous experiments' results
Arpan’s research: photos with a higher level of conflict lead to a more negative depiction of the protesters.
Violence did not make any difference when they were not interested in the topic.
Our research found that neither of these were the case.

Elaboration Likelihood Model: the most violent image would cause less attention and comprehension of the story
The research did not reveal this pattern

The Dual-Coding Theory was confirmed as
the articles accompanied by images did increase the recall.

Zillmann's research:
Respondents understood the text better with the presence of photos but that neutral images do not improve the recall.

Mendelson and Darling-Wolf’s findings: images detracted from the ability to generate a more complex understanding of the article.
Not confirmed

The Protest Paradigm as although we framed the article in a different way depending on the photographs, the violent did not create a more negative reaction to the protest or protesters than the neural photo or the article without the photo.
Not confirmed

Finally, Tukachinsky, Mastro, and King’s conclusion: there was no difference in results between visual and verbal exemplars
Not confirmed: respondents shown a violent image had higher recall and more emotionality that respondents shown only the text.

Our conclusions
Our research (albeit very small) fills in existing gap in literature. Attitude and recall are usually not measured at the same time
Lightbulb
moment:
do people around the world actually care about what is anything that isn't directly related to them?
Understanding this phenomena is important for us both as consumers and journalists.
We can better understand the effects of the content we read, see and produce
Full transcript