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The French Revolution
Transcript of The French Revolution
The Church owned 10% of the land, collected tithes, and paid no direct taxes to the state. There were two classes of clergymen, the High Clergymen which consisted of high church leaders such as bishops and abbots, who were nobles and lived very well. Parish priests, lived in a different setting, they often came from humble origins and might have been as poor as their peasants. "The First Estate did provide some social services. Nuns, monks, and priests ran schools, hospitals, and orphanages. But during the Enlightenment some philosophes had critized the idleness of some clergy, Church interference in polotics, and its intolerance for dissent. In response, many clergy condemned the Enlightenementfor undermining religion (Catholocism) and moral order. The Second Estate was entitled to the nobility of French society. In 1600 Louis XIV had taken the nobility right to military power but had given them other rights. The rights included valued positions in the governement, the army, the court, and the Church.
The Secound Estate was dicided into, the nobility of the robe and the nobility of the sword. Nobles of the robe tended to support the revolution in opposed to the nobles of the sword.
Nobles of the sword - military merit.
Nobles of the robe - purchased bureaucratic merit. The third Estate was of 98 percent of the population in 1789, it was a diverse group classified in 2 categories. At the very top of this estate you have the bourgeoisie, thay are the middle class, included, properous bankers, merchants, and manufacturers. It also included lawyers, doctors, journalists, etc..
The majority of this estate consisted of rural peasants. Most wer tenant farmers or day laborers. The lowest of the Estate were urban workers, a large number of urbans were unemployed and resulted in begging or stealing for survival. Debt Starvation Epic Fail Cahiers Tennis Court The Bastille Revolution in France On July 14, 1789, the attention that was caused by the National assembly meeting in Versailles, and diverted to the rumors that once spread the streets of Paris, that royal troops were going to patrol the capital. More than 800 Parisians charged the Medieval walls of the Bastille looking for weapons ans gunpowder. The Bastille was a prison set for unauthorized political and other prisoners. The mob had broken through the diffences and released the prisoners but were greated with no weapons. "Is it a revolt?"
"No sire, it is a REVOLUTION" The economy in France had imploded due to the frivolous spending of the royals, and the casualties from war. Due to heavy spending, the government proposed that heavy taxing would solve the problem. In addition the government would also take loans and borrow maney which would put the economy in further damage. It was decided that it was either reduction of spending or increasing of taxes, and tle clergy and nobles made sure it was increse in taxing. Louis XVI was a well meaning kind but was weak and indecisive, fir this reason he had strategically decided to hire Jacques Necker, a financial wizard, as his personal advisor. Jacques pressed the king to reduce his extravagant and outrageous court spending, reform the government, and abolish onerous tariffs on internal trade. But once Necker had brought up the possibility of taxing both the 1st and 2nd estate, the clergymen and nobles had started to oppose the new advisor and persuaded the king to dimiss him. It was Necker's reputation with the French public for independence and integrity that made rumors of his imminent dismissal on July 11, 1789 one of the sparks of the French Revolution. Necker's dismissal, it was said, was necessary to clear the way for a royal coup that would bring the the new National Assembly, less than a month old, to its knees. The SUN King "I AM THE STATE" Like his grand father Louis XIV firmly believed in the divine rights. Louis took the sun as the symbol of his absolute power. The expanded the bureaucracy and appointed intendants, royal officials who collected taxes, recruited soldiers, and carried out his polocies throughout the province. The parlements were legal the local judges and legal elites. They tried cases for theft, murder, forgery, sedition and libel. They also served as public censors and sometimes were responsible for fixing the price of bread. In the late 1780s poor harvest had resulted in raising of the price of bread. Because bread was the main source of nutrition for poor peasants, this led to starvation. Representatives of the 3rd Estate were invited to the Estates general, but only those that had value in the Estate (well porportioned men) for example lawyers, doctors, and middle class officials. These people were educated enough to be familiar with the writings/ words of Voltaire, Rousseau, Locke and other philosophes, they did not go their only to help solve the financial problem but to also suggest a reform. But the voting system in the Estates General was corrupt and the 1st and 2nd estates would always outrule the 3rd estate. After some time the 3rd estate had resulted in creating their own group, the National Assemby. They had invited other delegates that supported the 3rd estate to help form their constitution. But they had found their meeting hall to be closed and guarded, fearing the king may dismiss them they resumed their meetings in an indoor tennis court. This formed the famous tennis court oath, "never to seperate and to meet wherever the circumstances may require until we have established a sound and just constitution." The king told all three estates to make a book listing their troubles. This procedure was taken to the extreme when some had demanded reforms, and had showd their resentment to the other estates. There is a Myth that centers Marie Antoinette, when she asked why the parisians disliked her. Her servant said because they had no bread to eat. She responded by saying, "Let them eat cake." The French Revolution The
Terror Napoleon This Ain't just a Mans World It was early in the morning on October 5 when groups of women had gotten together and made a big crowd in the central marketplace of Paris The march to Versailles, with its angry women and their threatening behavior, was one of many violent disturbances that occurred during the French Revolution. The march on Versailles's main purpose was to obtain bread and force the price of bread down to where it had been. Versailles was known as a royal paradise, and many very important people lived there along with the King and his family. Versailles was also known as a great big paradise where there were a lot of parties held and the King did nothing but hunt and have fun. It was a very huge surprise to have all of these working class people march into the palace and demand bread from the King. As they marched through the streets, more women came out of their houses and off the street to join them. The women were armed with pitch forks, muskets, pikes, swords, bludgeons, crowbars, and scythes as they marched through the rain. When the women reached Versailles, they stormed through the gates. The women demanded bread while they stood in the palace of Versailles sopping wet and muddy. The King was scared and overwhelmed by group of people that stood before him. Since the national assembly had most of the power in the country of France and the king had very little, the king gave in to the women's demands. He then told the women that he would have all of the bread in Versailles ordered out to them. But more than bread arrived in Paris. The King decided to move his court to Paris was well, a decision that would have dire consequences as the revolution unfolded. Womens March to Versilles Hoarding Grain Death Reign of Terror Main Form of Execution The guillotine was the catalyst for the famous Madame Tussaud's waxwork exhibitions.
In the 1790's there was, of course, no television and the rudimentary media of the time had no means of printing pictures in quantity. Thus only very few people knew what the French aristocracy looked like. Madame Tussaud collected the guillotined heads and made plaster casts of them, which she then filled with wax to give a reasonable likeness. She toured France with her exhibition for some time before falling foul of the Revolution herself and fleeing to England where her work continued. Her waxworks are still enormously popular today. Marie Tussuad Marie Tussuad had been arrested during The Reign of Terror, along with Joséphine de Beauharnais (Later to be Napoleons wife). Her Head was shaved in preperation of the guillotine, but because of her talents in wax figurines, she was told to recreate wax masks of infamous dead, such as Marie Antoinette, Louis the sixteenth, Robspirre etc. Soon, enough Madame Tussaud was searching through sanitaries collecting the most illustrious heads she could find, of aristocrats. Guillotine Joseph Guillotine, a doctor, suggested its use for all executions, because it was a quick, painless death. Prior to this, only nobility had the option to die this way. After an execution, two men would toss the body into a large basket, while a third would do the same to the head. The Guillotine was also referred to as the national razor, many french bacame victims of this weponary contraption. It was early in the morning on October 5 when groups of women had gotten together and made a big crowd in the central marketplace of Paris The march to Versailles, with its angry women and their threatening behavior, was one of many violent disturbances that occurred during the French Revolution. The march on Versailles's main purpose was to obtain bread and force the price of bread down to where it had been. Versailles was known as a royal paradise, and many very important people lived there along with the King and his family. Versailles was also known as a great big paradise where there were a lot of parties held and the King did nothing but hunt and have fun. It was a very huge surprise to have all of these working class people march into the palace and demand bread from the King. Austrian and Prussian armies threatened war agaisnt France if they refused to reinstate the monarchy. This made Louis look as though he had been conspiring with the enemies of France. Louis was to be condemned to death for "conspiracy against the public liberty and the general safety". He was executed by the guillotine in 21 January 1793. Charles Dickens Acurracy Women were encouraged to sit and knit during trials and executions, during the reign of terror, in a Tale of Two Cities we often read the women in france sit and knit. Which may conclude that the events in the book were during the time of the Reign of Terror. Making it a Historical Fiction. Gory Revelation Public executions were considered educational. After Louis death the reign of terror began The first victim to face the guillotine after Louis death was Marie Antoinette, she was known as the 'Widow Capet'. She had been imprisoned with her children after she was separated from Louis. They had taken her only son Louis Charles from her, he was then regarded as the Lost Dauphin, because he had dissappeared under suspicious circumstances. Then she led off a parade citizens to her deaths.
The Terror was created as an attack strategy to elliminate anti-revolutionists. Most of the people rounded up were not aristocrats, but ordinary people. Someone might go to the guillotine for saying something critical of the revolutionary government. If an informer happened to overhear, that was all the tribunal needed. Commitees encouraged to arrest suspicious persons, "those who, either by their conduct or their relationships, by their remarks or by their writing, are shown to be partisans of tyranny and federalism and enemies of liberty" (Law of Suspects, 1793). The Convention stated that "if material or moral proof exists, independently of the evidence of witnesses, the latter will not be heard, unless this formality should appear necessary, either to discover accomplices or for other important reasons concerning the public interest." Their previous declaration of "The Rights of Man" had been forgotten and abandoned. Terror was the order of the day. Robespierre was the mastermind of the Reign of Terror. He was the leader of the Committee of Public Safety, the executive committee of the National Convention, and the most powerful man in France. Even the radical Jacobins, the supporters of Robespierre, come to feel that the Terror must be stopped. Robespierre was arrested and sent to the guillotine as the last victim of the Reign of Terror. In the words of Maximilien Robespierre, "Softness to traitors will destroy us all."