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Social Learning Theories
Transcript of Social Learning Theories
Refers to the psychological context in which the individual responds. It is the situation as defined from the perspective of the person. Any given situation has different meanings for different individuals, and these meanings affect the response. Rotter’s concept of the psychological situation takes into account the importance of both dispositional and situational influences. An individual may have a strong need for aggression but may not behave aggressively in a situation, depending on reinforcement expectancies.
Psychological Situation Ex: Emma may be more willing wash the dishes after dinner every night if she gets ten dollars allowance a week, instead of a verbal thank-you. Refers to the importance or preference of a particular reinforcement for an individual. Reinforcement value Refers to individuals’ subjective expectations about the outcome of their behavior. It is an estimation of the probability that a particular reinforcement will occur if one behaves in a certain way in a given situation. Expectancy Refers to the likelihood that a particular response behavior will occur in a given situation. Behavior refers to a wide class of responses that includes overt moments, verbal expressions, and cognitive and emotional reactions. The behavior potential is specific both for the particular behavior and for the related reinforcement. Thus, we must know what goal the behavior is related to before we can tell how likely it is to occur. Behavior Potential Rotter believes that extreme belief in either internal or external locus of control is unrealistic and unhealthy. However, it is clear that many favorable characteristics have been associated with internal locus of control, and it has been proposed that an internal orientation is more conducive to positive social adjustment and functioning. However, family socioeconomic status is an even stronger correlate of locus control, as well as not being a member of a vulnerable population, such as children, medical patients, lower level employees, and the elderly. The increase in external scores for women in the 1970’s may reflect greater awareness of external constrains on their ability to meet their goals at work and in other settings. Some research has shown sex differences , females tending to be more external. Pertinent to terror management theory, mortality salience decreases the perception of risk and increases risk taking in externals. They attribute their lack of success to bad luck or to the difficulties of the task. Externals develop defensive strategies that invite failure in coping with a task and use defensive strategies afterwards to explain their failures. They tend to be more anxious and depressed, as well as more vulnerable to stress. Externals are more likely to conform and prefer not to have to make a choice. They tend to assume more responsibility for their own behavior and attribute responsibility to others. They make more independent judgments and try harder to control the behavior of others. Internal locus of control appears to protect one against unquestioning submission to authority and are less influenced by others. They derive more benefit from social support and are more likely to use contraception. They suffer less from hypertension and are less likely to have heart attacks. When they do become ill, they cope with the illness more adequately than externals. Internals are more likely to know about the conditions that lead to good physical and emotional health and take positive steps to improve their health, such as quitting smoking, avoiding substance abuse, and engaging in regular exercise. Internal people-adults- are better versed about critical political events that influence their lives. Example: Internal prison inmates know more about the institution and conditions affecting their parole and are more likely to be paroled. They learn cooperation faster than externals . Internals have greater mastery tendencies, better problem-solving abilities, and more likelihood of achievement. They ask more questions and process information more efficiently than externals. Internals are more perceptive and ready to learn about their surroundings. Certain parenting practices encourage internality: warm, responsible, supportive conditions and the encouragement of independence. Internality becomes stable in middle ages and does not diminish in old age. Internality increases with age; as children grow older, their locus of control tends to become more internal. Outcomes of the I-E scale: Some I-E Scale results:
National sample of high school students: the mean score of 8.50. Peace Corps Trainees: 5.94- the lowest mean score reported by Rotter.
Consists of 23 forced-choice items and six filler items. Participant chooses which items pair best. The final score can range from 0 to 23; the higher the score, the greater externality of that individual. However, there is no “cut off” score that separates internals from externals.
Various measuring devices have been developed to assess locus of control as a personality characteristic: Rotter’s I-E scale is most widely used. Rotter’s locus of control:
Anticipates whether one’s actions will influence outcomes. Rotter’s locus of control is not to be confused with Bandura’s concept of self-efficacy. Externally controlled people (E): Believe the “control” is out of their hands. Their consequences happen due to Fate or Luck or whatever cards the big man dealt them. Internally controlled individuals (I): Assume their own behaviors and actions are responsible for the consequences that happen to them. Julian Rotter’s most important concept is the belief that a person’s reinforcements are controlled by his or her own behavior or by people or outside forces such as luck or fate. After conducting a few experiments designed to tell whether or not people learn tasks and perform differently when they see reinforcements as related or unrelated to their own behavior, Rotter developed the I-E Scale as an assessment tool to measure a persons’ perception of control. Theory Locus of control Bandura’s self-efficacy:
Refers to the belief that one is able to perform certain actions. General Principles of Social Learning People can learn from observing others behaviors and learn from those outcomes Learning can occur wihtout a change in behavior Observational learning is thought to be especially important and effective during childhood, particularly as authority figures become apparent. Required Conditions Attention to the model
In order to successfully model behavior, Bandura stated there were four certain conditions:
Retention of details Motor reproduction person must be motivated enough to replicate the modeled behavior, and have the opportunity to do so The role of Punishment and Reinforcement Reinforcements and punishments have an indirect effect on learning..they are not the main motivation. According to social learning theory, people learn how to behave not only from reinforcements and punishments, but by imitating those around them:
Reinforcements and punishments influence the extent to which an individual exhibits a behavior An expectation of reinforcement influences cognitive processes that promotes learning. What are we “MODELING”? Statistics have shown that 50% of ads in teen girl magazines and 56% of TV commercials aimed at female viewers used beauty as a product appeal.
In a recent survey by Teen People magazine, 27% of girls affirmed that the media pressures them to have a perfect body. 68% of girls in a study of Stanford undergraduates and graduate students felt worse about their own appearance after looking through women’s magazines.
The number one wish for girls 11 to 17 is to be thinner. Girls as young as age 5 have expressed fears of getting fat.
In a survey of elementary school students, girls commented that they would prefer to live through a nuclear holocaust, lose both of their parents or get sick with cancer rather than be fat. 80% of 10 year olds have been on diets. Of these, less than twenty percent are actually overweight observer must be able to retain the behavior of model observer must be able to retain the behavior of model observer must be able to replicate the behavior they are seeing..this can be a problem for young children who do not possess the necessary skills, or abilities to perform some actions yet. Motivation and opportunity Walter Mischel (1930- ) Albert Bandura (1925- present ) Biography Born December 4th 1925 in Alberta, Canada
He was the youngest of eight children
Graduated with a BA from the University of British Columbia. Received his doctorate from the University of Iowa
Professor Emeritus of Social Science in Psychology at Stanford University. He contributed to social cognitive theory, therapy, and personality psychology
He is known as the originator of social learning theory
He is known for the 1961 Bobo Doll Experiment
2001 he recieved the lifetime acheivement award from the Association for the Advancement of Behavior Therapy. 2004 He recieved the APA's Outstanding Lifetime Contribution to Psychology Award. Contributions to Social Learning Theory He noticed children and adults tend to mimic The experiment that was his claim to fame, even though he wrote two books, was the Bobo Doll Experiment.
Children who observe violence against the Bobo doll would do the same thing. If the experimenter was nice to the Bobo doll, the child would do the same thing, also.
He wrote Adolescent Agression (1959) and Aggression: A Social Learning Analysis (1979) Famous Study: BOBO DOLL
- Filmed one of his female students “beating up” a Bobo doll, while shouting “sockeroo!”. He then went on to show it to a group of kindergarteners, of course all thoroughly enjoyed the video. When the kids where let out to play with the Bobo doll, observers noted that the kids proceeded to re-enact the same behavior they had seen in the movie just prior to going to play. Theory: “Most human behavior is learned observationally through modeling: from observing others, one forms an idea of how new behaviors are performed, and on later occasions this coded information serves as a guide for action.” - Bandura -Believed the theory that one’s environment causes one’s behavior was far to simplistic, and therefore suggested the theory of reciprocal determinism. This theory states that not only does one’s environment cause one’s behavior but that one’s behavior also causes one’s environment. (he later added that one’s psychological process, our ability to entertain images in our minds, was also an influencing factor) Requirements for Social Learning to Take Place: 1.Attention: One MUST be paying attention! a.Attention is heightened when:
Model is colorful or dramatic.
Model is attractive, prestigious, or appears competent.
Model seems more like one’s self
b.Feeling tired, sick, or hyper can distract from the stimuli. 2. Retention: One must be able to REMEMBER what one paid attention to! 3.Reproduction: One must be able to REPRODUCE or RE-ENACT the behavior in the first place a. Watching the Olympic skiing competitions all day does not mean that you will be able to go right out to the slopes and do the same thing they do when you don’t know how to ski in the first place.
b. Practice improves one’s ability to imitate.
c. One’s ability is improved even more so when one can visualize themselves performing the behavior.
4.One’s ability is improved even more so when one can visualize themselves performing the behavior. a.Motives for learning-
Past Reinforcement: Traditional Behaviorism (choice depends on a past event or occasion).
Promised Reinforcements: Incentives
Vicarious Reinforcements: Seeing and recalling the model being reinforced
b.Motives for NOT learning -
Promised Punishment: Threats
Vicarious Punishment: Observing a model exhibit a behavior that leads to punishment Self-Regulation – the ability to control one’s own behavior. Bandura’s 3 steps to self regulate: 1.Self-observation: Looking at one’s self 2.Judgment: Compare our performance with that of traditional standards.
One can also compete with one’s self. 3.Self-response: reward & punishment
a.Rewarding Self Response- when one excels at their set standard
Treating one’s self or a feeling of pride
b.Punishing Self Response- when one does poorly in comparison to their set standard.
Working late or a feeling of shame Self-concept – a.k.a. Self-esteem Self-efficacy: central to component of self-concept. It’s one’s ability to believe that they can successfully perform a behavior that will produce the desire effects. -Punishment never works as well as reinforcement, and has a tendency to backfire.
1.Compensation: superiority complex (delusions of grandeur).
2.Inactivity: apathy, boredom, and depression
3.Escape: drugs, alcohol, or even suicide. -High self-esteem comes from meeting standards as well as plenty of self-praise, and self-reward.
-Low self-esteem comes from failing to meet standards as well as self-punishment.
-Recommendations for those who suffer from poor self-concepts-
1.Regarding Self-observation: one must have an accurate portrayal of themselves and their behavior.
2.Regarding Standards- One should never set them self up for failure. Making standards which one cannot possibly attain, is pointless, baby-steps are key.
3.Regarding Self-response: Don’t dwell on failures, and always celebrate victories. Again reinforcement is always more effective than punishment.
Mischel was born in 1930 in Vienna, Austria. He and his family fled to the United States after the Nazi occupation in 1938. He grew up in Brooklyn, New York Studied under George Kelly and Julian Rotter at Ohio State University, from which he received his Ph. D in clinical psychology in 1956. GO BUCKEYES! Mischel taught at the University of Colorado from 1956 to 1958, at Harvard University from 1958 to 1962 and at Stanford University from 1962 to 1983. Since 1983, Mischel has been in the Department of Psychology at Columbia University. Biography Theory Behavioral Specificity Behavioral specificity means that an individual’s behavior is determined by the specific situation. Initially thought that we behave consistently in the same manner in different situations only to the extent that these situations lead to similar consequences. when the consequences are different, we learn to discriminate among different situations and behave accordingly. which reaction we show at any particular moment depends on discriminative stimuli: where we are, whom we are with, and so forth. In collaboration with Yuichi Shoda, Mischel has suggested a cognitive-affective system theory of personality, called CAPS for short. The theory considers both the stability of personality and the variable of behaviors across situations. Personality is a stable system that mediates the selection, construction, and processing of social information that generates social behavior. Individuals differ in their selection of situations to attend to, in their encoding of the situations, and in their emotional responses to them. Patterns of invariability in behavior are not unwanted errors but reflections of the same stable underlying personality. In Mischel and Shoda’s theory, individuals are described in terms of both the distinctive organization of their cognitions and feelings and the psychology features of situations. Ones behavioral signatures is the personality consistencies found in distinctive and stable patterns of variability across situations. Focusing on the interactions between personal and situational variables allows researchers to make precise predictions concerning stability and change in behaviors. Wright and Mischel were able to accurately predict that children with strong aggressive tendencies would act more aggressively in certain high-stress situations than children with low aggressive tendencies but that there would be little aggressive behavior from their group in specified low-stress situations. Mischel and Shoda believed that the personality system within a person remains fairly stable unless a new development, learning, or biochemical changes occur. Types of cognitive-emotional mediating units have been conceptualized in terms of five relatively stable person variables on which individuals differ in processing self –relevant information. (CAPS) 1.) Encoding: categories (constructs) for the self, people, events, and situations (external and internal).
2.) Expectancies and beliefs: about the social world, about outcomes for behavior in particular situations, about self-efficacy.
3.) Affects: feelings, emotions, and affective responses (including physiological Reactions).
4.) Goals and Values: Desirable outcomes and affective states; aversive outcomes and affective states; goals, values, and life projects.
5.) Competencies and Self-regulatory plans: potential behaviors and scripts that one can do and plans and strategies for organizing action and affecting outcomes and one’s own behavior and internal state.
Collectively, the results showed that when closely observed, individuals are characterized by stable, distinctive, and highly meaningful patterns of variability in their actions, thought, and feelings across different types of situations.
Situation-behavior relationships provide a kind of “behavioral signature of personality” that identifies the individual and maps on to the impressions formed by observers about what they are like.
The Marshmallow Experiment
Conducted by Mishcel in the 1960s
A group of four-year olds were tested by being given a marshmallow and promised another, only if they could wait 20 minuets before eating the first one.
Longitudinal Study- the kids were followed into adolescence.
Mischel was a forerunner in discovering the importance of deferred (aka delayed) gratification.
Believes that not only does environment influence behavior,but one's behavior also influences the environment