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Chapter 18: The Campaign for Independence
Transcript of Chapter 18: The Campaign for Independence
Reported by: Rae Marie Rodrigo
In 1922-1935, American leaders were divided on the issue of the Philippine Independence. As a result, Filipino leaders encounter problems under Governor Wood.Under his regime, Wood reversed the Filipinization of the government and was clearly opposed to the goal of the Philippine independence.
The Wood-Forbes Mission
The Presidential election of the United state in 1920 resulted to the defeat of the Democrats ( a party who is willing to let go the Philippines as soon as a stable government was in place.), arouse the campaign for more independence in the Philippines by most Filipino leaders.
Newly president, Warren G. Harding sent an investigation mission in the Philippines, he appointed William Caameron Forbes and General Leonard Wood to head the mission inorder to determine whether o r not the Filippinos were prepared for independence.
Harrison's policies especially in dealing with finance,banking and currency were UNWISE
Too much politics by the Filipino in government resulted in BOSSISM.
They also report that most of the Christian Filipinos were for Independence, but
non-Christian were for continued American occupation.
Historical Background of
Sergio Osmena and Manuel L. Quezon During Filipino-American War
While governor, he ran for election to the first Philippine Assembly of 1907 and was elected Speaker of that body.
Osmeña was elected to the Philippine National Assembly in 1907 and remained a member of the lower house until 1922.
In 1922 he was elected to the Senate. He went to the United States as part of the OsRox Mission in 1933, to secure passage of the Hare–Hawes–Cutting Independence Bill which was superseded by the Tydings–McDuffie Act in March 1934.
Osmena continued his secondary education at San Juan de Letran College where he first met Manuel L. Quezon, as his classmate along with Juan Sumulong And Emilio Jacinto.
He took up law at the University of Santo Thomas.
during revolution ,and the Filipino-American war,Osmena founded the Cebu newspaper, El Neuvo Dia.
He served on the war staff of General Emilio Jacinto as a courier and journalist
.In 1904, the American colonial administration appointed him governor of Cebu. Two years later he was elected governor of Cebu
Manuel L. Quezon
In 1899, Quezón cut short his law studies at the University of Santo Tomás in Manila to participate in the struggle for independence against the United States, led by Emilio Aguinaldo. During the Philippine-American War he was an ayuda-de-campo to Emilio Aguinaldo. He rose to the rank of Major and fought in the Bataan sector. However, after surrendering in 1900 wherein he made his first break in the American press, Quezón returned to the university and passed the bar examinations in 1903, achieving fourth place.
He worked for a time as a clerk and surveyor, entering government service as an appointed fiscal for Mindoro and later Tayabas. He became a councilor and was elected governor of Tayabas in 1906 after a hard-fought election.
In 1907, he was elected to the first Philippine Assembly
In 1916 to be elected into the Philippine Senate and later became Senate President
In 1935, Quezón won the Philippines' first national presidential election under the banner of the Nacionalista Party against Miguel Malvar.
Conflict Between Osmena and Quezon
Both were for Philippines Independence
Merge and reconciled
Work Under one theme
Filipino political leaders
Speaker of the first Philippine Assemble
describe as the number two man in the government. Wieded vast power.
Believed that leadership should be exercised by7 one person, not by a group
President of Senate Assembly
thought to outrank Osmena
Believed that political leaders should be exercised collectively. that no one should dictate policies but instead all should participae in thier formulation
Colectivitas Party or commonly known as Nacionalista Party
Governor Wood exercise all the power and authority of the governor-general as describe by the Jones Law causing strong opposition from the Filipino political Leader
Manuel L. Quezon , had a quarrel with the governor.
The cause of the quarrel concerned an American detective in Manila Police Department, Ray Conley. Conley was suspended for allegedly accepting bribes and committing acts of immorality. The suspension was approved by the Secretary of the Inferior, Jose P. Laurel but Wood insisted that Conley be brought to trial.So Laurel, requested that Conley be investigated administratively to which Wood agreed. In the end Conley was found not guilty.
Quezon took advantage of the Conley case, attacked Wood and branded him as anti-Filipino. As a result their was a mass resignation and Wood accepted their resignation.
Board of Control Case
The board of control was composed of the governor-general, the Senate President, and the Speaker of the House.Under the setup, the governor general was always outvoted by the two Filipino members of the board but wood objected to this and said that the Jones Law vasted him executive control of the board.He abolished the board of control to which Quezon and Osmena filed a case in the Supreme Court but lost.
Quezon and Osmena accused Wood of exercising his veto power ( the constitutional right of the President to reject a legislative enactment or resolution.) without any restriction. The conflict with Wood ended only with his death in 1927
Senator Sergio Osmena and Speaker Manuel A. Roxas was sent to United state to appeal the granting of Philippine independence. Among the groups of American citizen, This are in favor of Philippines independence:
1. American Farm group
2. American labor group
3. Isolationist, one who is against involvement is conflict or war.
*These group in favor the Indepence of the country for a common reason; to eliminate competition between American product and Philippine product, and American laborers and Filippino laborers
As a result of intensive campaign of Os-Rox mission, U.S Congress passe the Hare-Hawes-Cutting Law.
*This law provided that at the end of a ten-year period, to be named as the Commonwealth Period, Philippines Independence would be granted.
* The law also provided that fifty Filipino immigrants would be allowed to enter the United State every year for a period of ten years.
*Some Philippine products were to enter the country in limited quantities, while U.S. product were allowed free entry to the Philippines.
*It also authorized the United Stateto retain in the land or other property designated by the President in the United State for " Military and other reservation"
Framing the Constitution
The Tyding-Mcduffie Act provided for the framing of constitution for the Commonwealth government. On March 23, 1935, President Roosevelt a[approved the Constitution for a Commonwealth government. On June 16 of the same year, an election was held, Quezon and Osmena ran in the same ticket and won as president and vice president, respectively. The Commonwealth wae inaugurated On November 15,1935 in front of the Legislature Building in Manila.
The courage and Heroism of women of Malolos, the women of the katipunan and the 1896 Revolution, persisted till the American period. During this time,Women was able to fight for women's right to vote and to run for public office. Women had a great contribution to the independence of the country as they set themselves an example to other Filipinis.
After the First World War in 1914-1918, The Philippine Legislature created the Independence Commision whose purpose was study ways and means of negotiating for Philippine.
Quezon upon hiring the law, he thought that it was not a good law. So he worked hard for the law to be rejected by the Philippine Legislature.
Quezon went to the United State and work with Senator Millard Tyding and Representative John Mcduffie Delano to have the Hare-Hawes-Cutting Law be reenacted with practical little change. As a result a Tyding-Mcduffie Act was signed by President Roosevelt on March 4,1934. Stated that " the retention of naval reservation and fueling stations" instead of " the retention of military and other reservation.
Quezon did this on purpose so that he would not be outwitted by Osmena in terms of political rule and reign.
Presented to: Gregg Jones Galgo