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Transcript of Classroom Management
maximize instructional time
reduce behavioral problems The organization of space The importance of seating arrangements Defining Classroom Management What the textbooks say: The organization of activities The organization of materials We've looked at the types of resources and materials needed for FL classes...and talked about the challenges in finding them The organization of social relations "it is through your relationships with students that you affect and influence them most dramatically" How does it affect us as FL Teachers? What is Classroom Management? The organization of student behavior There's a trend to focus on behavioral issues-or more specifically - __________ when talking about classroom management. What the research says: ORGANIZATION "of space, time, activities, materials, social relations, and student behavior" (Djigic & Stojiljkovic, 2012, p. 66) "the procedures and routines that make our time with our students as productive as possible" (Curtain & Dahlberg, 2010, p. 235) the role of a positive environment
However, the focus is on a behavior management plan Establishing Rules Making connections between behavior and consequences (one page) (five pages) Reupert and Woodcock's (2010) research found that the "literature often employs the terms classroom management, behaviour management and discipline interchangeably" (p.1261). actions used by the teacher to establish order "setting expectations for behavior, controlling the flow of activity, handling discipline problems, and keeping students engaged and motivated to learn" (Kottler, Kottler, & Kottler, 2004, p. 132). (Cabaroglu, 2012; Reupert & Woodcock, 2010) facilitates interaction
helps keep students engaged, on task
helps manage student behavior (Kottler et al., 2004; Patrick, 2007) Exploiting Proximity the greater the distance between the students and the teacher, the greater the chance of students goofing off "By using mobility and proximity, teachers constantly disrupt the students' impulse to be disruptive" (p. 29). Jones (2007) Bell Ringer Activities aka Sponge, Warm Up, Challenge, etc. engaging students from the onset of class while freeing your hands for all those administrative tasks tend to be reviews or applications of previously learned material add pictures of seating arrangements here **most commonly implemented routine among FL and general education teachers K Graf, KSU implements interpersonal conversation activities - topic-based, interesting and personal to students D. Webster, NCHS & M. Roberson, CHS often introduce the schedule for the day, announcing the parts of the day's lesson. M. Roberson & K. Noe, AHS give quick reviews of previous material and/or lessons Types of Bell Ringer Activities *Keep them varied - *Keep them short and quick! incorporating the 3 modes Graf's warnings Anchor Activities (Tomlinson, 2004) similar to the "sponge activities" and game ideas from Ch. 8 in Curtain and Dahlberg (2010) In a Differentiated Classroom, "ragged time" is the NORM -some students will inevitably complete work before others Use Anchor Activities such as: journal writing
managing a portfolio
practicing ____ *all students at some time or another need to engage in these activities *However, the highest level of quality possible should be encouraged BEFORE - peer evaluators Grading you might have multiple projects/ tasks/ assignments going on at the same time.
students are "graded against themselves" In a differentiated classroom: Changing the traditional grading system Reducing the grading burden So, how can we avoid burdening ourselves? Example: A=excellent performance
B=good performance, etc. Adding "superscripts": 1=working above grade level
2=working at grade level
3=working below grade level A 3 = students who are clearly working hard and progressing well; however, their work is not yet at grade-level norms (Tomlinson, 2004) Maintaining the "traditional" system: Share the record-keeping responsibility with your students. Even young learners can keep a calendar of daily/weekly activities, record their progress at a center/station (using forms), use checklists, and select sample work, etc. Likewise, consider the following options: (Kottler et al., 2004) (Tomlinson, 2004) Can the task be self-graded or self-evaluated?
Peer-graded or peer-evaluated?
Can the assignment be completed as a group or paired activity?
Can you vary the evaluation methods you use? This is where our rubrics will come in handy!! Therefore, keep ALL the resources you find! Label them and hold on to them... you never know if you might find a use for them... Note to remember: Edit the task, not the text!! In his research of mobile learning, Van de Bogart (2011) discovered that cell phones were not only intrinsically motivating, but that their use had a positive impact on students' L2 learning. Post secondary students cited an interest in cell phone usage to increase interaction with their teachers. "At the university level, you only see students two times per week for a semester. It is difficult, as a language teacher, to observe huge developments in the language acquisition of university students" (K. Graf, personal communication, March 21, 2013) Integrating technology in the FL classroom Digital literacy
and FL learning meeting the technological and social demands of the 21st century: With blogging, for example, we can optimize chances for socialization and collaboration...and develop a greater learning community (Bartholomew, M., Jones, T., & Glassman, M., 2012) (Kottler et al., 2004) M. Roberson wishes she had known "how often the administration would change, you invest time and energy into understand and exceeding your evaluator's expectations, discipline style, etc. and your principal's expectations, policies, goals, etc. and then they constantly change. I have had 7 principals in 15 years and more administrators and evaluators than I can count. Each one expects something different or the same thing in a different format and it is exhausting..." What M Roberson of CHS said: Now, put yourself back in the students' shoes... Collecting information about your students on an index card (Kottler et al., 2004) In addition to the usual important and emergency information you can also ask your students: Language skills Interests and Activities By: Kimberly Murphy According to our textbooks: According to research: Classroom Management is: the Cabaroglu (2012) justified this trend with research showing that behavioral problems were the number one reason for new teachers leaving the job. misbehavior Interestingly, all the teachers whom I interviewed mentioned they felt the least prepared for discipline and/or misbehavior, often citing them as their greatest challenges in classroom management. Dealing with misbehavior Common Behavioral Problems talking back
inappropriate behavior Reactive Strategies Ignoring
Discussing problems privately
Humor Guidelines for Engaging Students Greet students at door.
State the objective.
Relate content to prior knowledge.
Plan for MORE student involvement.
Address learning styles and multiple intelligences.
Focus on higher order thinking skills.
Allow student input in decision making.
Organize activities that are relevant to real life.
Use concrete examples.
Provide for movement.
Give lots of praise (when deserved).
Keep a sense of humor. Standards-based, communicative language teaching (everything Dr. Hoyt drills into us) communicative
integrated Patrick (2007) reminded us to take another look at our activities if we are experiencing Classroom Management problems: Double checking our activities Are my expectations clear? Or are my students left guessing?
Am I giving my student too much time for the task/ assignment?
Are my lessons interesting and relevant?
Are the tasks meaningful? And do my students know why they're meaningful?
Have I changed activities often enough? provides whole class, small group/pair, and individual tasks each day and says that "differentiation helps keep discipline problems down" Indeed, interviewed teachers have commented on the successful planned activities M. Roberson, CHS K. Graf, KSU says that "short, quick, and clearly definable tasks where students engage in the target language and produce an outcome are the best type of activities" How our backward planning will help us differentiate (thanks again, Dr. Hoyt!) Differentiated Instruction is ROOTED in assessment assess readiness levels
assess modes of learning Differentiated Instruction provides MULTIPLE APPROACHES to: content
product i.e. "the what" i.e. "the how" i.e. how students "demonstrate" what they learn (handout) Established publications Web-based resources Personal communication Change the Grading System WHILE Finding your balance (Thanks, Dr. Hoyt!) (Tomlinson, 2004) Maintain your key ideas and principles...Then ask, what are other ways students can show SWBAT? Thanks to Dr. Terantino, I will just touch upon the essentials of technology in FL classes principal, staff, and administration
your students' parents Questions related to FL! Questions about self, family, foods, etc. that could be used in your planing for beginner level conversations Preventative strategies over Reactive strategies (Kottler et al., 2004, p.134-5) REFERENCES Curtain, H., & Dahlberg, C. A. (2010). Managing the successful early language classroom. In H. Curtain & C.A. Dahlberg, Languages and
children-Making the match: New languages for young learners, grades K-8 (pp. 235-256). Boston, MA: Pearson.
Denton, P. & Kriete, R. (2000). The first six weeks of school. Turners Falls, MA: Northeast Foundation for Children, Inc.
Jones, F. (2007). Tools for teaching: Disclipline, instruction, motivation (2nd ed.). Santa Cruz, CA: Fredric H. Jones & Associates, Inc.
Kottler, E., Kottler, J. A., & Kottler, C. J. (2004). Secrets for secondary school teachers: How to succeed in your first (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin, Press, Inc.
Patrick, P. (2007). The keys to the classroom: A basic manual to help new language teachers find their way. P. Plawin, M. Abbott, & S. Ackley (Eds.). Alexandria, VA: The American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages.
Tomlinson, C. A. (2004). How to differentiate instruction in mixed ability classrooms (2nd ed.). Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
Wong, H. K., & Wong, R. T. (2004). How to be an effective teacher: The first days of school. Mountain View, CA: Harry K. Wong Publications, Inc. Bartholomew, M., Jones, T. & Glassman, M. (2012). A community of voices: Educational blog management strategies and tools.
Techtrends: Linking Research & Practice to Improve Learning, 56(4), 19-25.
Burnett, J. (2011). Two case studies of secondary language teaching: a critical look at the intersection of management and the local and social realities that shape our classrooms. The Modern Language Journal, 95, 2-26.
Cabaroglu, N. (2012). Prospective EFL teachers’ perceptions of classroom management and misbehavior. Cukurova University Faculty of Education Journal, 41(1), 117-132.
Djigic, G., & Stojilkovic, S. (2012). Protocol for classroom management styles assessment designing. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 45, 65-74.
Reupert, A. & Woodcock, S. (2010). Success and near misses: Pre-service teachers’ use, confidence and success in various classroom
management strategies. Teaching and Teacher Education, 26(6), 1261-1268.
Van De Bogart, W. (2011). Adopting cell phones in the classroom: A study of students' attitudes and behaviors on using cell phones both in and out of the classroom. Proceedings of The International Conference on Intellectual Capital, Knowledge Management &Organizational Learning, 571-579. Graf, K.
Webster, D. Thank you to the following teachers who took time from their already busy day to share their unique insights and experiences as I researched this topic: Why is Classroom Management important? According to Wong & Wong (2004), "The most important factor governing student learning is classroom management" (p. 82). (personal communication, March 21, 2013) (personal communication, March 19, 2013) (personal communication, March 18, 2013) (personal communication, April 9, 2013) (personal communication, March 18, 2012) According to Wong and Wong (2004), "the vast majority of behavior problems in the classroom are caused by the failure of students to follow procedures and routines" (p. 167). Why is this critical? The Responsive Classroom Approach: (Denton, P., & Kriete, R., 2000) 1. The social curriculum is as important as the
2. How children learn is as important as what
3. The greatest cognitive growth occurs through
4. There is a set of social skills that children need
in order to be successful.
5. Knowing the children we teach is as important
as knowing the content we teach.
6. Knowing the parents of the children is as
important as knowing the children.
7. Teachers and administrators must model the
social and academic skills which they wish
to teach their students. However, despite methods courses, training, student teaching and field experiences, teachers are still citing concerns!!! (K, Graf, personal communication, March 21, 2013; K. Hogan, personal communication, February 26, 2013; K. Noe, personal communication, April 9, 2013; M. Roberson, personal communication, March 18, 2013; D. Webster, personal communication March 19, 2013 (See Burnett, 2011; Cabaroglu, 2012; Reupert & Woodcock, 2010) & Is Classroom Management different for teachers of Foreign Languages? Yes and No there's more one-on-one interaction
more STT: Student Talk Time A need for stronger classroom management skills to facilitate the conversational and student-centered environment