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History of Atomic Structure Timeline

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Paul Rapp

on 13 November 2012

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Transcript of History of Atomic Structure Timeline

By Paul Rapp and
Jacob Shulteis History of Atomic
Structure Timeline Democritus (400 BCE) Robert Boyle (1688) Antoine Lavoiser (1800) John Dalton (1803) Robert Boyle wrote a book, In this book he overturned Aristotle’s conception of the four elements (the belief that everything was composed of earth, air, fire and water) and replaced it with the modern idea of an element—namely that an element is a substance that cannot be separated into simpler components by chemical methods. called the Father of Modern Chemistry, having discovered that water is made of hydrogen and oxygen. He also invented the analytical balance and showed that chemical elements were neither created nor destroyed, just combined into different compounds in chemical reactions. From this work follows one of the most fundamental principles of physics, the conservation of mass.
Lavoisier did not originate the idea that certain substances (elements) were fundamental and all others could be derived from them. John Dalton,to whom the atomic theory is attributed.
Dalton's theory was based on the premise that the atoms of different elements could be distinguished by differences in their weights. He stated his theory in a lecture to the Royal Institution in 1803.
Dalton's theory provided a logical explanation of concepts, and led the way into new fields of experimentation. Dmitri Mendeleev
(1863) Max Planck
(1874) Eugen Goldstein
(1886) J.J. Thomson
(1897) Niels Bohr
(1913) Ernest Rutherford
(1917) Erwin Schrödinger
(1926) Robert A. Millikan
(1910) James Chadwick
(1932) develop the idea of atoms
Democritus thought that it ended at some point, a smallest possible bit of matter. He called these basic matter particles, atoms.
all matter is made up of tiny, indivisible particles, or atoms He formulated the Table of the Elements - listing them by their atomic weight and grouping them into 'families' with similar characteristics.
This became known as the Periodic Law. Planck combined the laws with a special hypothesis (the quantum hypothesis) to produce Planck's law, the shape of energy emission by all bodies
Quantum theory, the idea that energy is emitted in discrete quanta, contrary to classical physical theory. the discoverer of protons. He did experiments with cathode ray tubes, which knock electrons off atoms and attract them to a positively-charged electrode (the cathode). He noticed that a second stream of particles was attracted to the negatively-charged electrode (the anode), so he called them anode rays
His experiments gave him a picture of atomic structure that was decades ahead of its time, and similar to what we know today. His atomic theory identified that electrons inside an atom could show, meaning that atoms were not invisible.
J.J. Thomson had started to discover atomic theory that gives complete explanation of atomic structure. J.J. Thomson had previously hypothesized that the mass of a single electron was at least 1000 times smaller than that of the smallest atom.
Millikan measured the charge on an electron with his oil-drop apparatus. Proved that neutrons, neutral particles in the nucleus that made up approximately half the mass of an atom, did exist.
James Chadwick discovered the neutron, which is in the nucleus along with protons. Niels Bohr created the Bohr Model of the atom. It was an improvement on previous models (Thompson's Plum Pudding Model, Rutherford's model, etc.) which depicted the atom as a positive nucleus surrounded by negative electrons. Niels Bohr was also a member of the team of scientists working on the Manhattan Project. Rutherford devised an experiment where alpha particles were fired at a very thin sheet of gold leaf.
Looking at his data he reasoned that the Nucleus was surrounded by a relatively large void before the electron cloud was encountered. He likened the relative size of the atomic nucleus to the distance to the electrons as the 'fly in the cathedral'. A powerful model of the atom was developed by Erwin Schrödinger in 1926. Schrödinger combined the equations for the behavior of waves with the de Broglie equation to generate a mathematical model for the distribution of electrons in an atom.
model assumes that the electron is a wave and tries to describe the regions in space, or orbitals, where electrons are most likely to be found.
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