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Christianity and Islam
Transcript of Christianity and Islam
Ephesians 5: 19-24
....be filled with the spirit; speaking to yourselves in psalms and hymns and spiritual songs, singing and making melody in your heart to the Lord; Giving thanks always for all things unto God and the Father in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ; Submitting yourselves one to another in the fear of God. Wives, submit yourselves unto your own husbands, as unto the Lord. For the husband is the head of the wife, even as Christ is the head of the church: and he is the saviour of the body. Therefore as the church is subject unto Christ, so let the wives be to their own husbands in everything.
How does this text reflect the status of women in early Christianity?
Spread of Christianity
The next thing was to seek means of propitiating the gods, and recourse was had to the Sibylline books, by the direction of which prayers were offered to Vulcanus, Ceres, and Proserpina. Juno, too, was entreated by the matrons......but all human efforts, all the lavish gifts of the emperor, and the propitiations of the gods, did not banish the sinister belief that the conflagration was the result of an order.
Consequently, to get rid of the report, Nero fastened the guilt and inflicted the most exquisite tortures on a class hated for their abominations, called Christians by the populace. Christus, from whom the name had its origin, suffered the extreme penalty during the reign of Tiberius at the hands of one of our procurators, Pontius Pilatus, and a most mischievous superstition, thus checked for the moment, again broke out not only in Judaea, the first source of the evil, but even in Rome, where all things hideous and shameful from every part of the world find their centre and become popular. Accordingly, an arrest was first made of all who pleaded guilty; then, upon their information, an immense multitude was convicted, not so much of the crime of firing the city, as of hatred against mankind. Mockery of every sort was added to their deaths. Covered with the skins of beasts, they were torn by dogs and perished, or were nailed to crosses, or were doomed to the flames and burnt, to serve as a nightly illumination, when daylight had expired.
To the Commissioners of Sacrifice of the Village of Alexander’s Island:
From Aurelius Diogenes, the son of Satabus, of the Village of Alexander’s Island, aged 72 years: ---scar on his right eyebrow.
I have always sacrificed regularly to the gods, and now, in your presence, in accordance with the edict, I have done sacrifice, and poured the drink offering, and tasted of the sacrifices, and I request you to certify the same. Farewell.
-----Handed in by me, Aurelius Diogenes.
-----I certify that I saw him sacrificing
Mathew 5: Sermon on the Mount
6 Blessed are those who hunger and thirst for righteousness,
for they will be filled.
7 Blessed are the merciful,
for they will be shown mercy.
8 Blessed are the pure in heart,
for they will see God.
9 Blessed are the peacemakers,
for they will be called children of God.
10 Blessed are those who are persecuted because of righteousness,
for theirs is the kingdom of heaven.
11 “Blessed are you when people insult you, persecute you and falsely say all kinds of evil against you because of me. 12 Rejoice and be glad, because great is your reward in heaven, for in the same way they persecuted the prophets who were before you…….. “You have heard that it was said, ‘Eye for eye, and tooth for tooth.’39 But I tell you, do not resist an evil person. If anyone slaps you on the right cheek, turn to them the other cheek also. 40 And if anyone wants to sue you and take your shirt, hand over your coat as well.
Constantine (306-337 CE)
Decline of Rome and Continuation of Christianity
65. O people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians)! Why do you dispute about Ibrahim (Abraham), while the Taurat (Torah) and the Injeel (Gospel) were not revealed till after him? Have you then no sense?
66. Verily, you are those who have disputed about that of which you have knowledge. Why do you then dispute concerning that which you have no knowledge? It is Allah Who knows, and you know not.
67. Ibrahim (Abraham) was neither a Jew nor a Christian, but he was a true Muslim Hanifa (Islamic Monotheism - to worship none but Allah Alone)
68. Verily, among mankind who have the best claim to Ibrahim (Abraham) are those who followed him, and this Prophet (Muhammad ) and those who have believed (Muslims). And Allah is the Wali (Protector and Helper) of the believers…..
70. O people of the Scripture! (Jews and Christians): "Why do you disbelieve in the Ayat of Allah, [the Verses about Prophet Muhammad present in the Taurat (Torah) and the Injeel (Gospel)] while you (yourselves) bear witness (to their truth)."
71. O people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians): "Why do you mix truth with falsehood and conceal the truth while you know?"
What is the Islamic perception of the relationship between these three faiths? (Islam, Judaism, and Christianity)
Umayyad Caliphate (c. 661– 750 CE)
-We shall not build, in our cities or in their neighborhood, new monasteries, Churches, convents, or monks' cells, nor shall we repair, by day or by night, such of them as fall in ruins or are situated in the quarters of the Muslims.
-We shall not teach the Qur'an to our children.
-We shall not manifest our religion publicly nor convert anyone to it. We shall not prevent any of our kin from entering Islam if they wish it.
-We shall show respect toward the Muslims, and we shall rise from our seats when they wish to sit.
-We shall not seek to resemble the Muslims by imitating any of their garments, the qalansuwa, the turban, footwear, or the parting of the hair. We shall not speak as they do, nor shall we adopt their kunyas.
-We shall not engrave Arabic inscriptions on our seals.
-We shall not sell fermented drinks.
-We shall not display our crosses or our books in the roads or markets of the Muslims.....We shall not bury our dead near the Muslims.
Pact of Umar (c. 7th Century)
How are non-Muslims expected to act in society?
Christianity and Islam
The Silk Road
Spread of Christianity
Islam and conquered people
Dhimmi "People of the Book"
Caliphate- "Dominion of a caliph ('successor')"
Abu Bakr vs. Ali
The Five Pillars of Islam
"Seal of the Prophets"
Abu Bakr vs. Ali
Narrated / Authority Of: Abdullah bin Amr
A man asked the Prophet, “What sort of deeds of Islam are good?” The Prophet replied, “To feed [the poor] and greet those whom you know and those whom you do not Know.”
Narrated / Authority Of: Al-Marur
At Ar-Rabadha I met Abu Dhar who was wearing a cloak, and his slave, too, was wearing a similar one. I asked about the reason for it. He replied, “I abused a person by calling his mother with bad names.” The Prophet said to me, “O Abu Dhar! Did you abuse him by calling his mother with bad names? You still have some characteristics of ignorance. Your slaves are your brothers and Allah has put them under your command. So whoever has a brother under his command should feed him of what he eats and dress him of what he wears. Do not ask them to do things beyond their capacity and if you do so, then help them.”
Sahih al-Bukhari (870)
Wives have rights corresponding to those which the husbands have, in equitable reciprocity, though, in certain situations men would have the final word and would thus enjoy a preference.
Men are appointed guardians over women, because of that in respect of which Allah has made some of them excel others, and because men spend of their wealth.
And say that the believing women that they should lower their gaze and guard their modesty that they should not display their beauty and ornaments except what (must ordinarily) appear thereof; that they should draw their veils over their bosoms and not display their beauty except to their husbands, their fathers, their husband's fathers, their sons, their husbands' sons, their brothers or their brothers' sons, or their sisters' sons, or their women, or the slaves whom their right hands possess, or male servants free of physical needs, or small children who have no sense of the shame of sex; and that they should not strike their feet in order to draw attention to their hidden ornaments. And O ye Believers! turn ye all together towards Allah, that ye may attain Bliss.
6. For if a woman does not cover her head, she might as well have her hair cut off; but if it is a disgrace for a woman to have her hair cut off or her head shaved, then she should cover her head.
7 A man ought not to cover his head, since he is the image and glory of God; but woman is the glory of man. 8 For man did not come from woman, but woman from man; 9 neither was man created for woman, but woman for man. 10 It is for this reason that a woman ought to have authority over her own head, because of the angels. 11 Nevertheless, in the Lord woman is not independent of man, nor is man independent of woman. 12 For as woman came from man, so also man is born of woman. But everything comes from God.
13 Judge for yourselves: Is it proper for a woman to pray to God with her head uncovered? 14 Does not the very nature of things teach you that if a man has long hair, it is a disgrace to him, 15 but that if a woman has long hair, it is her glory? For long hair is given to her as a covering. 16 If anyone wants to be contentious about this, we have no other practice—nor do the churches of God.
1 Corinthians 11:4-16
Women and Islam
Other world cultures and Islam
Medieval Islamic Economy
1. Read your article in your group and discuss together.
2. Summarize the main points to present to the class.
3. Explain how a historical understanding of one of the key-terms listed can help us better comprehend the article or the events described in it.
What comes to mind when you see this image?
Fight in the way of Allah against those who fight against you, but begin not hostilities. Lo! Allah loveth not, aggressors. And slay them wherever ye find them, and drive them out of the places whence they drove you out, for persecution is worse than slaughter. And fight not with them at the Inviolable Place of Worship until they first attack you there, but if they attack you (there) then slay them. Such is the reward of disbelievers. But if they desist, then lo! Allah is Forgiving, Merciful. And fight them until persecution is no more, and religion is for Allah. But if they desist, then let there be no hostility except against wrongdoers.
Say to the believing men that they should lower their gaze and guard their modesty: that will make for greater purity for them: and Allah is well acquainted with all that they do.
And say to the believing women that they should lower their gaze and guard their modesty; that they should not display their beauty and ornaments except what (must ordinarily) appear thereof; that they should draw their headscarves over their bosoms except to their husbands, their fathers, their husbands’ fathers….or small children who have no sense of the shame of sex
Surah 24: 31-32
Political History of Islam
Bishops vs. Holy Men
Christianity and Barbarians
Rome Sacked (410)
Edict of Milan (312 CE)
Council of Nicea (325 CE)
Theodosius I (384 CE)
Barbarian States (West)
Eastern Roman Empire/ Byzantine Empire (East)
The Five Pillars of Islam-
statement of faith
fasting during month of Ramadan
pilgrimage to Mecca (hajj)
Emphasis on Practice
"Seal of the Prophets"
Islam and the State
Rashidun Caliphate- “Rightly guided Caliphs”
Sunni Islam vs. Shia Islam
Islam and Violence
House of Wisdom
Algebra/ Arab Numerals
Golden Age of Islam
No representation of human form in art
No official “Islamic church”
Abbasid Caliphate (c. 750– 1258)
1. Describe the item you are giving them.
2. Explain why you are giving this to them.
3. Talk about the role of the item/genre in America or in the area (i.e. the Asheville music scene, the role of sports in American life, nature in this area, etc.)
4. Write their name and the group number on your letter
Top Secret Rosies: The Female Computers of World War II
Wednesday, 4 p.m.
What is due on Friday?