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The Scientific Enlightenment Revolution

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Sierra Gilman

on 31 March 2014

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Transcript of The Scientific Enlightenment Revolution

Background
Stages
Outcome
Background
Leaders
Stages
The French Revolution of 1789 was the accumulation of the high enlightenment vision
Throwing out the old and bringing in the new.
Martin Luther Challenged the Catholic Church's Authority and brought on the protest reformation,
Rediscovery of Classical teaching
Leaders
Frederick the Great:
Ruled Prussia
Called himself the first servant of the state
Studied with Voltaire for three years
under his rule there were more religious toleration and greater freedom of press
He also outlawed torture
Leaders
Catherine The Great
Ruled Russia
Believed in Enlightenment ideas
Set guidelines based on the theories Montesquieu
Opened hospitals and schools, including one for girls
Leaders
Joseph II
Ruled Austria
Influenced by the enlightenment ideals of equality and freedom
Made many reforms during his rule
Outlawed torture, abolished the death penalty, allowed freedom of both religion and the press
Early Enlightenment: 1685-1730
Isaac Newton published his "Principia Mathematica"
John Locke Published his " Essay Concerning Human Understanding"
Locke Argued that human nature was mutable and that knowledge was gained through accumulated experience.
Common enlightenment themes of rational questioning and belief in progress through dialogue
Stages
High Enlightenment: 1730-1780
Signature publication of the period was Diderot's "Encyclopédie"
Brought together leading authors to produce an ambitious compilation of human knowledge
A time of religious and anti-religious innovation
Coffee houses, newspapers and salons emerged as new venues for ideas to circulate
Stages
Late Enlightenment: 1780-1815
Throwing out the old authorities to remake society along rational lines
Devolved into bloody terror that showed the limits of its own ideas and led, a decade later, to the rise of Napoleon
Enlightened rationality gave way to the wildness of Romanticism
Ideas upheld by church, accepted authority for European intellectuals
Scholars began to challenge traditional authorities
Transformation of European thought, Question traditional thinking
Posed theories, developed procedures to test ideas
Francis Bacon:
Gain Scientific knowledge
Experiment
Observe
Measure, Explain & Verify
Leaders
Rene Descartes: French
Reason
Everything should be doubted until proved by reason
Relied on math
Dawn of Modern Science
the New view Challenges the Old view
Ancient Scholars could provide new information about new lands, people, and animals
Stages
The Scientific Method:
Identify Problem
Form Hyothesis
Perform experiments to test hypothesis
Record results
Analyze results, form conclusion
Discoveries in Astronomy, Physics & Math:
Explained complexities of solar system
Copernicus found geocentric theory of movement of sun, moon, planets not accurate
Discoveries in Biology & Chemistry
For biology European middle ages doctor relied on Greek
For Chemistry Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier recognized, named oxygen, introduced metric system, and invented first periodic table
Stages
Outcome
Great Advances made in astronomy, physics, biology, and chemistry
Advances influenced development in arts, and architecture
Philosophers/Scholars wondered if reason could solve poverty, war, ignorance
The French Government held the first international scientific conference
Fun Fact
Scientific Revolution Inventions
#1 The Pencil: invented by Nicholas Jacques Conte (A French Officer of Napoleon's Army)
#2 Flush Toilet: invented by Sir John Harrington (godson of Queen Elizabeth)
#3 The Scissors: invented by Robert Hinchcliffe
#4 Mayonnaise: Invented by French Chef of Duc de Richelieu (second cousin of Cardinal Richelieu)
European politics, philosophy, science and communications were radically reoriented
Due to the inspiration of the enlightenment it caused both the French and American Revolution
The enlightenment made way to the 19th century Romanticism
Fun Facts
The philosopher who gave credit for saying "I think therefore I am" was Rene Descartes
Checks and Balances was an Idea taken from Montesquieu
Compare
The Enlightenment and the Scientific Revolution both brought upon new ways of thinking
In both The Enlightenment and The Scientific Revolution Science and philosophers shined light on forgotten and new was of understanding
Both also had to win over the ways of higher powers
Contrast
The Enlightenment was more based on the theoretical world of man while the scientific revolution focused on the physical earth and being of man
The Scientific revolution was more about figuring out how the solar system worked while the Enlightenment was an age of discovering the individual
New inventions came out during the Scientific revolution, but in the Enlightenment there where no actual inventions but new ways of thinking
Conclusion
The Scientific revolution and The Enlightenment are very important revolutions to study. After everything I learned, the most important aspect was to keep thinking and always questions things that don't seem right. Both of these Revolutions taught me that, and I bet others took away this information as well while studying both the Scientific and Enlightenment revolutions.
T
H
E
E
N
D
Outcome
Made way to the wildness of Romanticism along with the 19th century Liberalism and Classicism
The French and American revolution were also outcomes of the Enlightenment
Full transcript