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Latin American Revolutions
Transcript of Latin American Revolutions
Slaves worked on plantations where they were mistreated and brutalized by owners
1791 Boukman raised a call for revolution
100,000 rose in revolt -- a leader emerged Revolution in Haiti Simon Bolivar was a brilliant Creole general
nicknamed El Libertador -- The Liberator
Venezuela declared independence in 1811, but that led to battle
Bolivar led revolutionaries into battle twice, suffered defeat
led 2,000+ on a daring march through the Andes in 1819 and surprised Spanish army
Independence became a reality in 1821, marched south to Ecuador
His partner was another Creole general named Jose de San Martin Creoles Africans Mestizos & Mulattos Indians Toussaint L'Ouverture
ex-slave who was untrained in the military & diplomacy
freed slaves in 1801
captured in 1802 and sent to the Alps Toussaint's general, Jean-Jacques Dessalines, takes up the fight & declares independence on 1/1/1804
1st black colony to free itself from European control
renamed Haiti ("mountainous land")
War for Independence The End to Spanish Rule Mexican Independence unlike the Creoles, the Mestizos & Indians led the charge for revolution in Mexico
1810 - Padre Miguel Hidalgo issues the Cry of Dolores, a call for rebellion
Hidalgo, with Indians & Mestizos, marched toward Mexico City
Army of 60,000+ defeated in 1811 by Spanish (& Creoles, who were concerned about the lower class uprising)
Padre Jose Maria Morelos emerges as new leader, but he is defeated by Augustin de Iturbide in 1815 Brazilian Freedom Brazil's quest for independence differed from other Latin American countries
Napoleon's armies invaded Portugal, forcing the royal family to flee & run the empire from Brazil
After Napoleon's defeat in 1815, the Portugese government wanted Brazil to be colonized again
in 1822 the Creoles demanded independence from Portugal -- 8,000 Brazilians signed a petition asking the King's son, Dom Pedro to rule The Effects of Independence Independence brought an increase in poverty
Wars disrupted trade & devastated countryside
Dream of united Latin America dissolves...
- Bolivar's concept of Gran Colombia divides in 1830 into Colombia, Ecuador & Venezuela
- in 1841 the United Provinces of Central America splits into El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Guatemala & Honduras "I will not rest until I have broken the chains that bind us to the will of Spain"
- Bolivar, after watching the crowning of Napoleon men born in Spain
held high offices in Spanish colonial government born in Latin America
could not hold high-level political office, but could rise as officers in army persons of mixed European/Indian or European/African ancestry of little economic value
most severely oppressed led his troops on a grueling march in 1817 across the Andes to Chile, eventually leading them to freedom
in 1821 he took his army north to Lima, Peru to drive out the remaining Spanish forces, but did not have a large enough army
in 1822 he met up with Bolivar in Ecuador, who had just won Venezuelan independence
de San Martin left Bolivar in charge of his army and set sail for Europe, where he died in 1850
Bolivar defeated the Spanish at the Battle of Ayacucho (Peru) in 1824, the last major battle of the war for independence The Spanish Are Defeated Another Attempt A turn of events in 1820 puts a liberal group in power in Spain, upsetting the Creoles who now support independence movement
Iturbide proclaims independence in 1821
several Central American countries also declared independence, but Iturbide (who was now emporer) refused to acknowledge
Iturbide is overthrown in 1823, the region of Central America declares absolute independence from Mexico