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Transcript of Valentine's Day
Ashley Osborn History of Valentines Day Influencing Consumer Behavior Contains both Christian and Ancient Roman beliefs Catholicism: Roman Priest: Father Valentine Defied Emperor Claudius II
Claudius believed in single soldiers
Claudius outlawed marriage
Father Valentine continued to perform marriages for young lovers in secret Father Valentine: Sentenced to death for his defiant actions
Fell in love with his jailor's daughter
Wrote the first Valentine to his lover on the day of his execution (in February)
It was signed "From your Valentine" Legends: Emphasize Father Valentine as a sympathetic, heroic, and romantic saint. Why Romance? Middle ages
It was believed that Bird's mating season began February 14th
Middle of Valentines day should be a day of Romance Timeline 1415: First valentine written by Charles, Duke of Orleans. 18th Century: friends and lovers of all social classes would exchange small tokens of affection or handwritten notes. 1840: Esther A. Howland began selling the first mass-produced valentines in America. 1900s: printed cards began to replace written letters due to increase in technology. Now: 1 billion Valentine’s Day cards are sent each year Making Valentine's Day the second largest card-sending holiday of the year! Social Stratifications More than half the US Population Celebrates by purchasing a card
50% of these cards are purchased 6 days prior to Valentine's Day
"Procrastinators Delight" Must create a love for your brand. Consumers want a meaningful brand. They want real love. This real love builds trust. Creating a Memory Use gifts and event competitions
Announcements of Valentine’s Day events
Repetition of holiday events Product Positioning Understand everybody's situation
"Couples Holiday" excludes many
Geographically separated loved ones
Single individuals Motivation Why do people spend so much on Valentine's Day when they normally wouldn't purchase that much? Valentine’s Day is a ritual situation
Events include: exchanging gifts
preparing and consuming food and drinks
paying special attention to grooming and clothing Products typically associated with love and romance have become crucial in the performance of this ritual: greeting cards
restaurant events Influencing Attitudes Studies show that men predominantly understand the holiday as an obligation to buy their partners expensive “romantic” gifts. Marketers use envy and guilt to persuade consumers to participate in the commercial side of Valentine's Day. Those who view the Valentines Day as a romantic holiday and are interested in purchasing gifts. Marketers use love, lust, remembrance, togetherness to influence the purchasing process. Valentine's Day Cross Cultural Variations All cultures view it as a day where loved ones exchange gifts Global Celebration U.S.
India Canada Throw balls and parties Australia Men express more affection than women
Men are more likely to send valentines England Unmarried women wake up early
Tradition is the first man they see is their future husband Italy and India Reluctance to celebrate Western imported holiday
Youth embrace and celebrate the holiday
Pizza parlors are a popular place to celebrate both Scotland Exchange love tokens and cards
Small intimate parties
Play traditional Valentine's day party games South Africa Everybody celebrates
Celebrated a week in advance
Market flowers, hearts, and lovebirds
Give traditional African decorations and gifts Ethical Implications If we succeed in marketing Valentine’s Day will this stimulate the economy in a beneficial way? If we succeed, will the funds spent on Valentine's Day be used for other uses with more beneficial long-term impacts for the individual or society? Does the way we celebrate Valentine’s Day conflict with local and cultural traditions? Marketing Ethics and Self-Concept Valentine’s Day marketing can affect the self-concept
We have a need for affiliation
Receiving Valentine’s Day cards or gifts can definitely satisfy this need
Conversely this need may not be met if you don’t receive any How we will use product positioning? Valentine's Day Themed Television Episodes
Banners on Websites and Social Media
- Frequency of Exposure
- Increased Learning Understanding our Market Women send 85% of all Valentines
15% of women sent themselves flowers
70% of singles said they would go on a blind date for the occasion
53% of women said they would end their relationship if they didn't receive something on Valentine’s Day How do Marketers Motivate? Need for affiliation Holiday
Need to be unique and creative each year
Use new ideas with old products
People can add personality and creativity to gifts How do marketers approach the variety of attitudes towards Valentine's Day? Use ideas and emotions behind the holiday to influence consumers to buy more
Appeal to friends who celebrate "Single's Awareness day"
Appeal to single individuals Reemphasize the original tradition and focus on improving your brand image through goodwill. Option 1: Option 3: Change current product commercialization strategies by using new tools such as social media and internet sites to enhance exposure to consumers. Option 2: Continue current trend in product commercialization strategies focused on improving top line sales. Current Trend $3.4 billion on dinners
$3.5 billion on jewelry
$1.1 billion for cards
$1.7 billion for flowers Benefits of Current Trends Retail and service industry reap economic benefits already
Spas, beauty salons, and other complimentary markets show increased sales in order to prepare for the holiday or as a result of gifts.
Even when things are more expensive during the Holiday people continue to purchase these products Candy and Card Industry American Society and Family Household Instrumental Training:
Rites and rituals that are performed from a young age
Cards, valentines, candy, and Valentine's Day parties occur throughout grade school Operant Conditioning:
Learned these good feelings associated with gift giving from childhood
People now associate flowers, gifts, and candy with "I Love You" Modeling:
Tradition is learned and reinforced throughout generations Candy and Card Industry Group Influences on Consumer Behavior Community:
Society expects behaviors
Moral responsibility Group:
Proper behavior of participating in holiday leads to positive feelings
No participation in holiday leads to possible alienation Online Social Networking Sites and Communities:
Put pressure on consumers to purchase Valentine's Day Presents
Shows gift exchanges amongst friends and family members
Normative and Informational Influence Candy and Card Industry Perception Voluntary Exposure:
Marketers should have their websites updated for gift giving ideas based on the holiday
Target men and women for products designed for the opposite sex Affective Interpretation:
"They'll love you with a gift like this." Candy and Card Industry Learning Memory and Product Positioning Long-Term Semantic Memory:
People are conditioned for how they should feel about the holiday
We were taught how to act and react to gifts
Consumers expect the "perfect Valentine's Day" Candy and Card Industry Motivation, Personality, Emotion Motivation: McGuire's Psychological Motives
Affective Growth Motives
-Need for Affiliation: "He'll love you for it"
-Need for Identification: "Get your girlfriend what she deserves"
-Need for Modeling: Show that it is appropriate behavior to buy candy and cards for your loved one on Valentine’s Day. Emotion:
Met needs lead to positive emotions
Unmet needs lead to negative emotions
Advertisements that display love and affection
People feel loved after receiving a gift on Valentine’s Day.
This generates positive consumption emotions which increases consumer satisfaction and loyalty. Candy and Card Industry Attitudes and Influencing Attitudes Appeal Characteristics:
Emotional Appeals Cognitive Component: what they think about Valentine's Day Cards and Candy
Affective Component: feelings and emotions associated with Valentine's Day
Behavioral Component: acting on their thoughts and feelings Situational Influences Candy and Card Industry Physical Surroundings: colors and music
Time: "procrastinator's delight"
Task definition: gift giving
Mood Hershey's Chocolate has been associated with love and romance since Hershey's coupled the two in their Hershey Kisses Campaign for Valentine's Day in 1907. Hershey's Now Personified the Chocolate Kiss
Offer multiple Valentine's Day products, crafts, and recipes Who wants a kiss? Brand Personality:
User Imagery: advertisements with people that are in love enjoying their “valentine activity” or product What brands and products are associated with Valentine's Day?