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Autosomal DNA consult

Helping genealogists employ DNA testing in their research.
by

Diahan Southard

on 21 April 2014

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Transcript of Autosomal DNA consult

Autosomal DNA
for the genealogist
-refresh (or create anew!) your Biology skills regarding what autosomal DNA
-give you more detailed information about the autosomal DNA testing procedure
-provide you with detailed information about each of the four major autosomal DNA testing companies
-help you understand what DNA testing can, and cannot do to help you in your genealogy
-produce in you a greater curiosity for all things DNA and genealogy (we hope!)
Background
In humans, "autosomal DNA" refers to the 22 pairs of chromosomes that are found in the nucleus of almost every cell in your body.
Each of our parents contributed half of our autosomal DNA.
mtDNA is maternally inherited
YDNA is paternally inherited
What atDNA is tested?
The most common testing is done using Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms.
They are called "SNPs" for short.
DNA is made up of four different building blocks known for simplicity purposes as A, T, C, and G. A SNP occurs when one building block, say a "C", changes to another, perhaps a "G".
What is a SNP?
Think of this signpost positioned in Southwest Asia.
Everyone standing at this post has the M9 SNP in their DNA.
Given another 10,000 years, many with the M9 SNP have now moved on to one of five main locations.
Autosomal DNA SNPs
atDNA SNPs provide the genealogist with two valuable, source of information:
Ethnic Background
500 Years or More
Genetic Relationships
6 Generations
Ethnic Background
Can help you discover the geographic origins of your ancient ancestors.
Testing Companies
Four major players are offering atDNA testing for genealogical purposes at the present time:
For example, this is the Ethnicity breakdown from 23andMe in its early years (circa 2007).
But in November of 2012, it underwent an impressive makeover!
I am from WHERE?!
The tricky thing about Admixture results is that they really have two very different components:
Time and Place
YDNA
YDNA
YDNA
YDNA
Think of the SNP time and place problem like the produce section of an average grocery store in the United States.
If you see a mango, it was likely not grown locally, but in South America, perhaps Brazil.
Brazillian?
Reference Populations
Know the reference Populations
FTDNA
23andMe
Admixture Results Recap:
Two important tips in understanding Admixture results:
SNPs have a time and a place
Know your reference populations
Genetic Relationships
These relationship estimates range from brother/sister/mom/dad to 5th / 6th cousins, or even more distant than that!
In general, there are two reasons you will be told you share a recent relationship with another individual:
You actually DO share a common ancestor in the time frame provided.
Second (or closer) cousin: 99%
Third cousin: 90%
Fourth cousin: 50%
Fifth cousin: 10%
Sixth cousin: <2%
You simply share common geographic origins
If you do not share a common ancestor, you might be told that you do because:
23andMe
Admixture Tool Summary
Ease of use
Several data viewing options
Specific reference populations give you detailed information about your ancestry
Genetic Relationships
23andMe provides tools for you to collaborate with others who have a similar genetic make up in order to verify or extend your genealogy.
Advanced Relationship Tools
By identifying the specific segment of shared DNA you may be able to shed further light on your relationship with another individual.
Relative Finder Summary
23andMe provides a wide range of tools with which to analyze your DNA matches.
Please note that many of the individuals tested by 23andMe may have signed up primarily for the health information and may not know much about their ancestry.
Health Information at 23andMe
23andMe USED TO provide information regarding various aspects of your health, including:
Your predisposition to various ailments and diseases including breast cancer and Alzheimers.
Your sensitivity to certain drugs.
Anecdotal information (traits) like the wetness of your earwax and your preference for cilantro.
This service is currently on hold- pending approval from the FDA.
How much does it cost?
$99
FTDNA
Admixture Tool at FTDNA
Population Finder
Family Finder
Genetic Relationships FTDNA
The Family Finder tool was created with the genetic genealogist in mind. Top Features:
Relationship estimates from close and immediate relatives to 6th cousins.
View the amount of DNA shared, in a measurement called centiMorgans (cM).
If you upload your genealogy as a Gedcom file, FTDNA will highlight the surnames you have in common with your matches.
Advanced Tools
How much is it?
Family Finder Test
$99
AncestryDNA
Admixture Analysis
AncestryDNA
Highlights for the Admixture portion:
they are using 22 reference population groups
they provide tools to analyze how your current genealogical knowledge interacts with the genetic findings
you can see how the ethnicities of your matches compare to your own
AncestryDNA
Genetic Relationships
View your match's family tree
View a list of surnames in their family tree, with the shared names between your trees highlighted.
Ancestry.com members will also see the familiar shaky leaf providing hints to relationships with matching members.
How much does it cost?
AncestryDNA test is
$99
Geno2.0
YDNA Haplogroups
Geno2.0
One of Geno2.0's most useful features for genetic genealogists is the fact that they test 12,000 YDNA SNPs, many of which have only recently been discovered.
This allows many men to fully identify their YDNA haplogroup, where before they only had a prediction, or a relatively distant haplogroup assignment.
For example:
After completing a YDNA test at Ancestry.com or FTDNA a gentleman was told he was in haplogroup R1b-M269, which extended naming is:
R1b1a2a
After the Geno2.0 test he learned that he was part of haplogroup R1b-DF25, also known as:
R1b1a2a1a1b3a7b1
How much does it cost?
Geno2.0 test is
$199.95
Genetic Genealogy Consultant
Need More Help?
We create personalized reports to help you understand how your genetics relates to your genealogy.
http://GeneticGenealogyConsultant.com
GeneticGenealogyConsultant@gmail.com
mtDNA and YDNA
YDNA and mtDNA haplogroup assignments provided
Partial mtDNA profile reported
DNA Basics
Inheritance
99%
90%
50%
10%
<2%
Lucy Claunch
Origin Details
23andMe also provides the ability to determine which section of DNA originated in which area of the world.
Family Finder
In Common With Tool
$10 informational CDs
(Admixture Results)
A Genetic Journey
Knowing the age of a SNP is helpful in identifying the point in history when one genetic lineage diverged from another.
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