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Racism: Confronting a Legacy of White Domination in America
Transcript of Racism: Confronting a Legacy of White Domination in America
-Have you ever seen/been a victim of institutional racism?
-What are some ways to move away from an institutionalized racial society?
-affirmitive action? still needed? word-of-mouth
60% to 90% of blue-collar workers were hired from recommendations
86% of jobs never appeared in the classified ads
white people may recommend only other white people to ensure they're with people they'll be comfortable with
not intentional racism
white people are more likely to know and recommend someone that's white
Labor Unions How has institutional racism influenced the development of segregated neighborhoods There used to be practices, such as assurance that if you sell your home it would not be sold to a family of color
those are now illegal, but other discriminatory practices still occur
steering- the practice of realtors showing homes to prospective buyers in neighborhoods where residents are predominately or exclusively of the same race
realtors could say they're not being racist, simply respecting the wishes of their clients
it is often times more difficult for people of color to finance the purchase of a home How does institutional racism occur at schools? contrary to popular belief, American schools are still segregated, in fact now more than ever
1972 laws providing funds to desegregate schools
schools were desegregating for slightly more than 20 years
students of color graduating increased significantly
racial divide between test scores decreased
substantially1990's schools began to re-segregate
racial test scores widened again
re-segregation has resulted in 75% of african american and latino students attending schools with a predominately minority population
some schools districts have attempted to overcome this by implementing multicultural curricula to make subject matter more inclusive How does institutional racism affect politics? People of color under represented in the House of Representatives and Senate
35% minority precentage in USA, 17% in House of Rep., 5% in Senate
at-large candidates- members of city councils and school boards are elected by the entire city rather than by their specific district. company location
racial segregation of neighborhoods
choice of suburb= choice of who will be hired
suburbanization of Industry
white suburbs are at an advantage
well off areas offer more incentives to influence a company's decision
25% to 50% of black unemployment resulted of jobs being shifted to the suburbs Racism: Confronting a Legacy of White
Domination in America Molly O'Meara
Shannon Farwell How can institutional racism be reduced in the US? How do advocates and critics asses the effectiveness of
affirmative action programs? Consequences of racial discrimination -A national agency should be established to enforce anti-discrimination laws and to coordinate activities of an anti-discriminatory nature
-Better resources should be provided to inner-cities.
-Real estate advertising and marketing should be monitored.
-Public schools that children from low-income families attend must be improved. This includes improving the buildings as well as curriculum.
-Teachers should know how to teach a classroom with a diverse population of students What remedies have been proposed to address
institutional racism? -Disproportion in jails --Many more African American (especially males) incarcerated than other races
--For every dollar that is owned by white Americans: -9 cents is owned by Hispanics -7 cents is owned by African Americans If America had achieved racial equality: -2 million more African Americans would have graduated from high school and college; 2 million more African Americans would have professional/manager position jobs; African Americans have $200 billion more in income; 3 million more would own homes; $760 billion more in home equity; $120 billion more in retirement accounts; $80 billion more in bank accounts --According to Packer Many studies have been done about loans and race
Federal Reserve of Boston- 5 times as many mortgage loans in low-income neighborhoods consisting of whites than those of blacks
Houston Bank- 13% of middle-income white applicants are denied compared to 36% of middle-income black applicants
Atlanta loan institutions- approved 5 times as many loans to whites as to blacks
African Americans who qualified for conventional mortgages were steered to the more profitable sub-prime home loans
3 times more families of color were given sub-prime home loans than white families
twice as many african-american and latino families lost their homes due to defaulting on sub-prime loans
harmed families and surrounding homes
because of segregated neighborhoods, homeowners who were people of color were more likely to suffer a loss of value in their homes due to foreclosures in their neighborhoods textbooks have a euro-centric bias in history, literature, art, and music
textbook bias is a problem at all levels of education
requires teachers to develop additional material that will provide students with information about multicultural perspectives
hard to do because teachers must teach the curricula and have limited time and resources to develop new materials
tracking- grouping students into categories by ability and assigning them to specific ability-related classes
most schools use tracking
usually results in both racial and class segregation because lower class kids are typically placed on different tracks than middle or upper class students
children whose first language is not English have often times been inappropriately placed in remedial classes
Nieto says how tracking children can influence their economic and occupational outcomes when they become adults provides minimal value for accelerated learners and harms those tracked at lower levels, especially those on the lowest level
has been said to improve education by being able to better teach to a students level, but there is no research to back it up
high achieving kids aren't compromised by being in heterogeneous classes
middle and low achieving students tend to improve when interacting with high achieving students and scholastic development is reduced when lumped with other low achieving students Bradley effect- white voters say they will vote for a person of color then don't at the polls.
Barack Obama being elected viewed as a milestone moving away from institutional racism in America complex problem
intent is not necessarily relevant to white advantage in the US
1980s supreme court ruled discrimination cases must present "evil intent"
when courts examine inequalities based on practices and policies despite intent, institutional racism in society will decrease advocates cite decreases in traditional colored race dominated job and increase of colored people in white dominated jobs
critics say policies should focus on socioeconomic status rather than race
extensive racism is still faced by colored people in the middle class