**Egg Drop Portfolio**

Procedure

We weighed the egg and the Nutella. Then we scooped out the exact weight of the egg from the Nutella, so the Nutella weighed 13 ounces with the egg. Then we put the lid back on the container and it's ready to drop!

Position Time Graph

**Goal**

The goal is to drop an egg from 4.9 meters and keep it from breaking.

Measurements

Height dropped from: 4.9 meters

Weight: 13 ounces

Time: .71 seconds

Mass: .36854 kilograms

Motion

Speed equals total distance divided by total time.

4.9 meters divided by .71 seconds equals 6.9m/sec.

Acceleration is the rate at which velocity changes within a given time. Acceleration equals the change in velocity divided by the change in time. -6.9m/sec squared down divided by .71sec equals 9.72m/sec squared.

Velocity is speed with a direction. So the velocity is -6.9 meters per second squared down.

Restrictions

The base of the structure can be no larger than 30cm by 30cm

The egg cannot be modified in any way

There can be no parachute for the egg/structure

No glass

The package should be able to be opened in around 30 seconds

No bubble wrap

**Rebecca Calhoun**

Partner in Experiment: Anisha Hari

Partner in Experiment: Anisha Hari

Nutella

Similar to the concept of putting an egg in peanut butter, we put our egg in Nutella. We predicted that the Nutella would absorb the force of impact and the egg would not crack.

Materials

13 ounces of Nutella

1 egg

1 spoon to scoop out Nutella and make room for egg

1 pair of gloves

Newton's Three Laws of Motion

Newton's first law of motion states that an object in motion tends to stay in motion and an object at rest tends to stay at rest, unless acted upon by an outside force.

Newton's second law of motion states that force is equal to mass times acceleration.

Newton's third law states that for every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction.

Newton's First Law

In the egg drop, the Nutella jar would not have fallen unless the force of gravity had pulled it to the ground and the force holding it up(myself) had not let go. This is the same for all objects in the universe. They will remain at rest until an outside force makes them move, and they will continue to move until an outside force stops them. On Earth there are many forces that can cause an object to change its motion. Just a few examples of the forces we have on Earth are gravity, friction and normal force. In other parts of the universe these forces are not as present, so objects will move or not move for long periods of time until an outside force acts on them. An example of this is the meteor crash in Russia earlier this year. The meteor was in motion for a long time until the outside force of Earth's gravity stopped it. When the meteor crashed, it was kept from going through the Earth by normal force. Theoretically, if the meteor had not crashed into Earth it would have gone on forever, or at least until it was affected by another outside force.

Newton's Second Law

Anywhere in the universe the force of an object equals its mass times its acceleration. The force of the Nutella falling equals its mass (368.54kg) times its acceleration (9.72m/s squared) So the force of the falling Nutella is 3.58 Newtons. In the sport of volleyball the force of the hit equals the mass of the ball times the acceleration of your hand hitting the ball. The mass of the ball does not change, so to make your hit have more force your hand needs to have greater acceleration.

Newton's Third Law

The action of the Nutella hitting the ground has an equal and opposite reaction of the ground pushing on the Nutella with the same amount of force. The Nutella container and the Nutella itself absorb the force so that the egg does not break. In volleyball the action of your hand hitting the ball has the equal and opposite reaction of the ball hitting back on your hand.

Use vectors to analyze motion.

Vectors are a unit of measure with a magnitude and direction. They describe a motions direction (up, down, left, right) and the speed of motion. It is useful to use vectors when describing motion because it gives more information. In the egg drop it was helpful to use vectors to describe the motion of the egg because it gives more information of the motion by giving a strength and a direction.

Explain the change in motion (acceleration) of an object.

Acceleration is a vector that describes an object's rate of change of velocity. It can be calculated in two ways. The first way is velocity divided by the total time. The second way is using Newton's Second Law Force=Mass x Acceleration. You can rewrite the equation to solve for acceleration by Acceleration=Force divided by Mass. To find the acceleration of the egg drop I used the first equation to solve because it made sense with the measurements I had.

Demonstrate the ways in which frictional forces constrain the motion of objects.

Friction is the force that resists the movement of objects. There are many types of friction, just some are sliding friction, rolling friction, fluid friction, and air resistance. On Earth we experience a lot of friction. Frictional forces are what makes it difficult to slide a box across the floor, and what causes a rolling ball to eventually stop. They are found everywhere that objects come into contact with each other. Air resistance is a type of friction that occurs when objects fall. The air resistance works against gravity and slows down falling objects. When air resistance and gravity are balanced, the velocity is constant. In space there are not these frictional forces, so when an object moves it will not stop unless acted upon by an outside force. In the egg drop the frictional force of air resistance helped to slow the velocity. However if we were able to use parachutes the air resistance would have been greater.

Describe how momentum can explain the interactions in a system of objects

Momentum is the quantity a mass is moving and the direction. It is calculated by mass times velocity or p=mv. The momentum of my egg drop is the mass (0.36854kg) times the velocity (-6.9m/s squared downward)= -0.00254kg x m/s squared.

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