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Introduction to Sculpture

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Foundation Studies

on 16 January 2014

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Transcript of Introduction to Sculpture

Online reference
and readings
A New Leaf Gallery |SculptureSite.com

The University of Chicago :: Theories of Media :: Keywords Glossary :: sculpture

Sculpture by the Sea

Artist reference:
Techniques in Sculpture
Material in Sculpture
Introduction to Sculpture
Free-standing sculpture

Realistic Sculpture

Figurative sculpture

Abstract Sculpture

Sculpture is a three-dimensional artwork, it offers actual depth
Free standing sculpture/“in the round" - able to be viewed from all sides
Relief sculpture - form carved or modeled from a flat background plane
Traditionally, sculptures were created mainly by cutting, carving, engraving or modeling
Traditional material: Clay, wax, stone, wood
With science and machinery, its no longer limited to carving and modeling. Sculpture now refers to any means of giving form to all types of three-dimensional materials
Welding, bolting, riverting, gluing, sewing, ,machine-hammering, stamping, on materials such as steel, plastic, wood, fabric.

Sculpture can be found in many forms and made from a diverse, and often unexpected, range of materials. At the start of the twentieth century, more traditional media and techniques were used, such as bronze casting or stone carving. Today, artists use anything to make sculpture, including everyday found objects and light and sound, and they often use manufacturing processes in making their work.

The traditional definition of sculpture is taken to be 3D work which can be seen ‘in the round’ or in relief, created using materials shaped primarily by the artist. Sculpture needs to be experienced in the round and therefore demands that we walk around it and view it from different angles: from each side, from above, from below or through the middle. This more physical relationship brings questions to mind as we look.
As sculpture evolved, by the 1970s artists had begun to use sound and light in their work, causing the definition of sculpture to expand beyond physical materials.

Relief sculpture
Any work that projects from the background.
Reliefs are classified by degree of projection.
In a bas relief the figures project only slightly and no part is entirely detached from the background (as in medals, coins, or areas of large reliefs in which the chief effect is produced by the play of light and shadow).
In a high relief sculpture, the figures project at least half of their natural circumference from the background.
There is also a relief in reverse, called hollow relief, in which all the carving lies within a hollowed-out area below the surface plane, and which, through an illusion of depth and roundness, looks like raised relief.
Reliefs may be carved from hard materials or modelled in wet clay, softened wax, or plaster. Reliefs are often elements of architectural sculpture.
Abstraction indicates a departure from reality in depiction of imagery in art.
Abstract sculpture uses nature not as subject matter to be represented but as a source of formal ideas. The forms that are observed in nature serve as a starting point for a kind of creative play, the end products of which may bear little or no resemblance to their original source.
Creates a composition which may exist with a degree of independence from visual references in the world. Abstract art uses the fundamental of visual language, such as lines, forms, colors, balance, rhythm, variety, etc.

Edgar Degas

Ron Mueck
Realistic Sculpture
Figurative sculpture can be either realistic (in varying degrees...) or stylized.
Domink Mersch Gallery, Sydney, Australia: "Position Probable", solo exhibition 2009.

Robert Hague is a Sydney based sculptor who works primarily with bronze and steel.
Damon Hyldreth
Abstract Sculpture - Post Minimal - steel, bronze, cor-ten, stainless
Jean Arp: sculptures. Kroller-Muller Museum, Otterlo, Netherlands.
Patricia Piccinini
Singapore’s river-diving boys of First Generation by Chong Fat Cheong, is a playful and fun sculpture showing people just letting go of their worries.
Lots more hyperrealist sculpture
“Hyperrealism, on the other hand, although photographic in essence, can often entail a softer and much more complex focus on the subject depicted, presenting it as a living tangible object. These objects and scenes in Hyperrealism paintings and sculptures are meticulously detailed to create the illusion of a new reality not seen in the original photo/scene. That is not to say that they are surreal, as the illusion is a convincing depiction of (simulated) reality. Textures, surfaces, lighting effects and shadows are painted to appear clearer and more distinct than the reference photo or even the actual subject itself.”
Readings on Hyperrealism
Alexander Calder
Week 1 - Journal Topic:
Discuss with your friends about what they think sculpture is and how it is made.
Discussion should develop out of your own experience of using different processes and
techniques in creating your own sculptures, as well as from sculptures that you have
seen. (*Walk around Singapore, note down the sculpture/Artist's name/title/year/material)

Some questions to ask about sculpture include:
• What do you think sculpture can look like?
• How big or small can it be?
• What kinds of shapes and textures can make up a sculpture?
• What can it be made of?
• How can it be made?
• What can it be about?
• What sculptures can you think of?
• Where can sculpture be found?
• How can it be displayed?
• Who can create a sculpture?
Lee bontecou
Sir Anthony Caro's Early One Morning 1962
” Event Horizon ” Antony Gormley.
Bill Mark
Xooang Choi
Kylo Chua
Henry Moore
Jean Arp
Anamorphic sculptures by Jonty Hurwitz

The kiss. Keld Moseholm. Sculpture by the Sea, cottesloe 2010
La Laiterie de Rambouillet, bas-relief, 1780-1787; Photo, Manufacture Nationale de Sèvres
A map of a large-scale model of the solar system
Dani Karavan's "Pray for the Peace of Jerusalem"
Bas Relief by Patricia Urquiola From this acclaimed Spanish architect and designer comes several lines of hand-made porcelain tiles.
Spiral Jetty by Robert Smithson from atop Rozel Point, in mid-April 2005
Site specific and environmental art works are represented by artists: Donald Judd, Richard Serra, Robert Irwin, George Rickey, and Christo and Jeanne-Claude led contemporary abstract sculpture in new directions. Artists created environmental sculpture on expansive sites in the ' land art in the American West' group of projects. These land art or 'earth art' environmental scale sculpture works exemplified by artists such as Robert Smithson, Michael Heizer, James Turrell ( Roden Crater) and others

The land art (earth art) environmental scale sculpture works by Robert Smithson, Michael Heizer, James Turrell and others
Andy Goldsworthy
this is 'Life Underground' by Tom Otterness [tomostudio.com] in 14th Street station installed in 2004.
More Sculpture Types
Ernesto Neto
"Installation art is art that uses sculptural materials and other media to modify the way we experience a particular space. Installation art incorporates almost any media to create a visceral and/or conceptual experience in a particular environment. Materials used in contemporary installation art range from everyday and natural materials to new media such as video, sound, performance, computers and the internet."
- wikipedia.org
Damien Hirst, Trinity - Pharmacology, Physiology, Pathology
Argentine artist Tomás Saraceno's
American artist Ann Hamilton
Kinetic, Interactive, New-Media, etc.
Alexander Calder.
Kinetic Rain - World's largest kinetic art sculpture @ Changi Airport
Theo Jansen is a Dutch artist and kinetic sculptor. He builds large works which resemble skeletons of animals that are able to walk using the wind on the beaches of the Netherlands.
Belgian artist, Arne Quinze
Public installation
HONF - New Media, interdisciplinary Arts Group in Jogjakarta, Indonesia.
House of Natural Fibre: Intelligent Bacteria
Carousel Mirror, 2005
Behind the Screen
A kinetic sculpture and media facade installation
Watch video on: http://vimeo.com/21815776

Plastics and Urethane
Metal – copper, stainless steel, etc.
Paper mache
Recycle Object

Clay – Ceramics, Modelling, polyclay, metal clay, porcelain
Stones – Granite, marble, soapstone
Organic– Ivory, tortoiseshell material, etc.


Han Sai Por

Ng Eng Teng


Yasuhiro SAKURAI 

Lim Soo Ngee


Keld Moseholm

Bronwyn Oliver

Anish Kapoor

Antony Gormley


Peter Callesen

Jen Stark

Anna-Wili Highfield

Nick Georgiou

Susy Oliveira

Bert Simons


Ji Yong-Ho


Mika Aoki

Dale Chihuly


Ernest Neto

Yayoi Kusama 

Do-Ho Suh


Chiew Skien Kuan


Assemblage sculptures are created by joining a variety of pieces together. They are united together by gluing, welding, sewing, wiring and other techniques. The process involves assembling things together.
Mixed media
Card board


The Carving method = subtractive method. Sculptors cut or carve away areas of the material that will not be part of the sculpture and leave the rest of the material to be the sculpture. Once something is carved away it can't be glued back on. The artist has to make alterations to the work or start over. It's not a very forgiving method of sculpting!
Conventional material used for carving include; Stone, wood, soap, plaster, wax

Alberto Giacometti, Bust of
Diego, 1954

Alberto Giacometti modeling a figure in his studio


An additive sculpture process in which material is built up into the final form, often over an armature.
Alberto Giacometti, a prolific painter and sculptor, spent many years creating portrait busts of his brother, and long-time studio assistant, Diego. The sculpture Bust of Diego was first created by modeling the form in clay. One can see how the sculptor modeled the clay with his hands in the indentions left on the surface.

Casting is a method of obtaining the permanence of a modeled work by making a mold and casting it in a durable material such as bronze. Two methods of casting are used: sand casting and the cire-perdue or "lost wax" process. The lost-wax process is more widely used, however, both have been frequently employed since antiquity.


Organic items

Henrique Oliveira
Week 1 - Journal Topic:
Discuss with your friends about what they think sculpture is and how it is made.
Discussion should develop out of your own experience of using different processes and
techniques in creating your own sculptures, as well as from sculptures that you have

(*Walk around Singapore, note down the sculpture/Artist's name/title/year/material)

Some questions to ask about sculpture include:
• What do you think sculpture can look like?
• How big or small can it be?
• What kinds of shapes and textures can make up a sculpture?
• What can it be made of?
• How can it be made?
• What can it be about?
• What sculptures can you think of?
• Where can sculpture be found?
• How can it be displayed?
• Who can create a sculpture?
Come back to the question...
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