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Transcript of ADHD:
Overdiagnosis Misidentification and Medication Effectiveness
Symptons of ADHD
1. Not being able to focus (inattentiveness)
2. •Not being able to control behavior (impulsivity)
3. Being extremely active (hyperactivity)
• Fails to give close attention to details or makes careless mistakes in schoolwork
• Has difficulty keeping attention during tasks or play
• Does not seem to listen when spoken to directly
• Does not follow through on instructions and fails to finish schoolwork or chores and tasks
• Has problems organizing tasks and activities
• Avoids or dislikes tasks that require sustained mental effort (such as schoolwork)
• Often loses toys, assignments, pencils, books, or tools needed for tasks or activities
• Is easily distracted
• Is often forgetful in daily activities
The concept of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder as described by the DSM-IV-TR is relatively new.
Today, ADHD is often criticized as a false diagnosis for the lazy and unmotivated. This is due to an increase in media attention given to the disorder in recent years.
ADHD is not recognized as its own separate category by the USDE, still classified under "other health impaired"
The History of ADHD
1865 - German physician Heinrich Hoffman publishes "Fidgety Phil" and "Johnny Head-in-Air"
1902 - Dr. George F. Still gives lectures on children with an inability to refrain from impulsively engaging in inappropriate behavior
1930s and 40s – Heinz Werner and Alfred Straus conducted studies that led to professionals calling children who were hyperactive and distractible as exhibiting Straus syndrome.
Late 1950s - A study published in 1956 about the aftereffects of birth complications revives the idea that subtle brain pathology could result in behavior problems. Professionals apply label of "minimal brain injury."
1960s and 70s - Hyperactive child syndrome
Professionals use the DSM criteria to determine whether a person has ADHD.
There has been debate over the existence of subtypes.
The APA used the general term ADD (attention deficit disorder) for awhile.
Now there are three recognized subtypes:
• Blurts out answers before questions have been completed
• Has difficulty awaiting turn
• Interrupts or intrudes on others (butts into conversations or games)
Diagnose a Classmate
This article talked about seven articles on the long-term effectiveness of ADHD medication on academic achievement
1. Is hyperactivity or inattention the most common symptom of people diagnosed with ADHD?
2. Which two lobes of the brain do some studies show are smaller in children with ADHD compared to other children of the same age?
3. By how much has the diagnosis of ADHD gone up in the past decade according to the CDC?
4. What are two things a child with ADHD might do?
1. What organization is responsible for publishing the diagnostic criteria for ADHD?
2. What is the most prevalent symptom exprienced by sufferers of ADHD?
3. Is ADHD caused by brain damage?
We have two children we wil try to diagnose as a class.
An imbalance of dopamine and norepinephrine can cause what three symptoms (also known as the three types of ADHD)?
According to the CDC, in the past decade, diagnosis of ADHD has risen by 22%. Are all of these cases actually ADHD? Or is it a cultural shift?
• Fidgets with hands or feet or squirms in seat
• Leaves seat when remaining seated is expected
• Runs about or climbs in inappropriate situations
• Has problems playing or working quietly
• Is often "on the go," acts as if "driven by a motor"
• Talks excessively
A teacher, parent or clinitian could misidentify a child as having ADHD for a host of reasons
Lets uncover the misconceptions about ADHD...
Pro-diagnosis/ADHD is real
The science behind ADHD
ADHD is not just a list of symptoms. The symptoms are a
of actual differences in the brain.
To medicate or not to medicate...
An alternative look at ADHD
Why diagnosis is important
-less impatience and impulsiveness
-less trouble finishing class work
Children with ADHD might:
• daydream a lot
• forget or lose things a lot
• squirm or fidget
• talk too much