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Building Types

Lecture given in the Theory series at the MA in Urban Design

Laura Novo de Azevedo

on 17 February 2018

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Transcript of Building Types

Typological Formations: Renewable Building Types and the City http://issuu.com/projective/docs/typoformations
“It is insufficient for architecture today to directly implement an existing building typology; it instead requires architects to carefully examine the whole area with new interventions and programmatic typologies”
Kartal Pendik, Zaha Hadid
classification based on the use and form
residential, educational, cultural, health...
detached, perimeter, multi storey...
(or exemplar) -
denotes the particular design of a building
Type is not universal. Challenging types to adapt to context leads to innovation.
Kasprisin, R. (2011) Urban Design. The composition of complexity. London, Routledge.
was repeated in the UK 'as is'
the 'island' or perimeter block type
art galleries and museums
city halls and other public buildings
community centres
hospitals and clinics
monuments and memorials
parking garages
office buildings
religious buildings
retail buildings
residential buildings
school and academic buildings
types in architecture
climate and privacy, Iran
Nikeghbali, Soroush. (2011) Investigating design principles of traditional housing in Iran and the possibility of adapting the principles for new developments in contemporary cities. Not published. MA in Urban Design, Oxford Brookes University, Oxford.
Theunissen, K. Re-opening the Dutch city block: recent housing projects as experiments in the public domain. In: Design , arq. vol 10. no 3/4. 2006.
Parametric Urbanism
Thames Gateway
–noun 1. a number of things or persons sharing a particular characteristic, or set of characteristics, that causes them to be regarded as a group, more or less precisely defined or designated;
defining characteristics (or principles) in the architectural type:
relatively narrow;
party walls;
small punched windows;
insolation and ventilation at front and back, roof or internal courtyards

urban typology:
arranged in rows
close and direct relationship with the street
continuous street line
back garden of varying depth
medium to high densities (50-60 dph)
typical image: long lines of two-up, two-downs set directly on to the pavement on gridded streets
the flexibility given by types provides a basis for innovation
if misunderstood as a model the concept of type in urban design can lead to 'boring' outcomes.
innovating in building types
"a plethora of codes, new patterns are emerging: parking; refuse and recycling; means of escape and access; security; acoustic separation; relationships to private external amenity space; and of course issues of energy use and sustainable construction are all shifting the typology"
CONTEMPORARY TERRACED HOUSING T YPES. Produced by Andrew Mead, drdh architects. (http://www.drdharchitects.co.uk/images/025_045_AJW_181007.pdf)
Typological Formations: Renewable Building Types and the City http://issuu.com/projective/docs/typoformations (p.74 in document)
'CABE has been instrumental in undermining planning authorities’ insistence on minimum overlooking distances. These have often denied the opportunity for density...
Slim House 2
combination of two housing types:
terraced house + courtyard house
model: victorian terraced housing
or can also be=
Kazan, Russia
Sitra - low2no sustainable development, Finland
exploring the flexibility of formal types
The word TYPE presents less the image of a thing to copy or imitate completely than the IDEA of an element which ought itself to serve as a RULE for the model
Quatremère de Quincy 1780s
all is more or less VAGUE in the type

in response to specific cultural conditions or from an ideal:
urban intensification and urban design qualities
for example to respond to the sustainable urban form (compact city) paradigm...
how do types evolve?
urban designers need to understand how cultural settings affect the development of types so that they can manipulate types (update, innovate) and respond to new cultural settings and global pressures.
form based types are useful to describe and analyse the space, shape, density, feel of the built environment without being specific about the precise character, use or intensity of activities.
Sheer, 2010
most buildings are models of a particular definable type and generate specific urban design qualities (single storey detached house = bungalow = suburbia = lack of vitality)
typological innovation (evolution from previous types) is dependent on response to change in cultural conditions (market demand, technology, cultural values, infrastructure creation and regulation)
common formal characteristics in a class of buildings
circulation, overall shape and scale, entrance conditions, position on the site, relationship to street, uses distribution...
Located adjacent to the London Olympic Park the houses are juxtaposed between the A12 motorway and Victoria Park - Cadogan Corner
an exploration of a formal type:
the terraced house
proportion, original use, site configuration
what usually doesn't change:
the type is unstable, mutating and changing. It is this instability that provides a flexible framework to develop resilient environments
limitations that can lead to obsolescence:
dark interiors, too narrow for new uses, lack of parking, universal access...
limited for describing impact on urban form
e.g. 'retail' = what is the resulting urban form of the application of the type retail?
Firley, E. & Stahl, C. (2009) The Urban Housing Handbook. Wiley, Chichester.
identity & density
privacy gradient
disruptions to the perimeter block type
no longer restricted to a walking only clientele
shops became larger
more space for parking
from type to prototype
pavilion building & isolated towers
the type is closely associated with

small scale pedestrian living and local distribution
Urban Sprawl Repair Kit: Repairing the Urban Fabric, submitted by Galina Tahchieva http://www.re-burbia.com/
All is PRECISE and GIVEN in the model
single-family residences set well back from a street on large plots and surrounded by mowed lawns with ornamental trees and shrubs
type & model
Time-Saver Standards for Building Types
Architects' Data (Neufert)
Metric Handbook
market demand, technology, cultural values, infrastructure creation and regulation
for example: the car, lifts, structural technology, solar panels...
Pierre d'Avoine
Urban Sprawl Repair Kit - Reburbia
'plot' is too large with multiple buildings owned by a single entity; the lot is not subdivided when new buildings are added; usually isolated from other tissues nearby and not connected to a network of streets except at limited entrances; buildings look 'the same'
highest rate of change, 'too much' variety of plot sizes and building types in close proximity and lack of street network.
Zaha Hadid
individual villas, high-rise towers, slab-shaped buildings and city-blocks
REX architecture
deconstructing the principles of one of the most resilient urban types
types workshop
develop general guidelines for one block including guidance for the design of an inner courtyard
for each type demonstrate how you are dealing with overlooking, fronts/backs, public private space, servicing, set back, plots sizes, building position, bicycle and car parking, waste, etc
free standing buildings
joined buildings
types in urban design
Sheer, B. C. (2010) The Evolution of Urban Form. Typology for Architects and Planners. APA, Chicago.
Pedersen, P. B. (2011) Sustainable Compact City. Denmark, Narayana Press.
Tarbat, J. (2012) The Plot. Designing diversity in the built environment: a manual for architects and urban designers. London, Riba.
Firley, E. & Stahl, C. (2009) The Urban Housing Handbook. Chichester, Wiley.
West 8 - Borneo-Sporenburg, Amsterdam
new types of three-storey, ground-accessed houses deviating from the usual terraced house in being strongly oriented to the private realm by incorporating patios and roof gardens
typological diversity
Hybrid Types
courtyard houses
row houses
apartment buildings
Chimney Pot Park
French architectural theorist
human scale, joined buildings forming a block facade, most efficient economically and environmentally, minimises walking distance
plot = block
isolated buildings
plot amalgamation and lack of aesthetic control
Casa Chorizo
Buenos Aires
the plot is the key element for defining building and block typologies
pavillion building
perimeter block
are associated typologically with North American suburban places
Jabriya, State of Kuwait
'rooted in the past but not stuck in the past'
single-family residences set well back from a street on large plots and surrounded by mowed lawns with ornamental trees and shrubs
develop general guidelines for at least two types (middle of the block and corner)
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