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What is Biology? (Unit 1)

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Juliana Capra

on 20 October 2015

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Transcript of What is Biology? (Unit 1)

What is Biology?
Main question of the unit:
What is Biology?

Definition- scientific study of all forms of life.

What are some examples of living things?
-Plants, Animals, Bacteria, and Fungi are all forms of living things.
Cells
Where are all living things found?
*Biosphere
-all living things and all the places they are found on Earth.

*Biodiversity
-the variety of all types of life in the biosphere
-The variety of life
*Note: Biodiversity increases towards the equator
*Organism
-any individual living thing.
Earth is incredibly unique!






Organisms can be...
Organisms can be...
Unicellular
Uni = 1
One cell
We call these single-cell organisms or prokaryotes
**So pro that they only need one cell to get the job done**

Multicellular
Multi = several or many
2 or more cells
We call these multicellular organisms or eukaryotes
**Eu (You) and I are Eukaryotes**

The more different living things we have on earth the greater the biodiversity

More about Biodiversity
Why does Biodiversity INCREASE from the poles to the equator?
All living things share common characteristics
*All living things exist in the biosphere

*Cells are the basic unit of life (building blocks)

Cell Theory states that all living things are:
1. made of one or more cells,
2. need energy,
3. respond to the environment, and
4. can reproduce



Homeostasis
Homeostasis
Maintaining
constant

conditions

within
an organism– Equilibrium (or balance)
Cells function best when within homeostasis
Disruption of homeostasis can
disrupt

cell
(and organism)
functions
Examples?
Temperature, pH, blood sugar…

Changes!
Reading and Questions
Answer the following questions as a group, you may need to read sections in your book to answer them, but it should be review of what we just talked about!

1-5 on page 6
3-7 on page 11

You have 15 minutes only!

Page 6:
1. How are species related to the concept of biodiversity?

2. How do the characteristics of living things contribute to an organism’s survival?

3. Describe the relationship between cells and organisms.

4. How does biodiversity depend on a species’ ability to reproduce?

Page 11
3. Why is homeostasis essential for living things?

4. What is the relationship between adaptation and natural selection?

5. How are structure and function related to adaptation?

6. How is the process of natural selection involved in evolution?

7. Do you think homeostasis is necessary at the level of a single cell? Explain.



The Scientific Method
Hypothesis
Not just an educated guess but a proposed answer for a scientific question. A hypothesis should be specific and testable.

Example:
If
I water one plant more than another plant
then
the plant that gets more water will grow more quickly.

Hypothesis vs. Theory
Hypothesis
Educated guess (or statement) based on
observations
that has
not
been
proven
.

They can be proven or refuted through experimentation.

Theory
Proven and
supported
by
evidence
,

generally accepted as true.

Based on the work of many scientist and lead to accurate predictions.

Ex. Darwin’s theory of evolution

Additional Notes about Theories
Theories must be:
supported
by data
verified
by other experiments
reviewed
by peers
modified
or
expanded
when
new
evidence becomes available

Key Parts to an Experiment
Hypothesis
- If I water one plant more than another plant then the plant that gets more water will grow more quickly.

Control group
- Conditions do not change.
What you keep the same to see if your independent variable is actually the factor “resulting in change”
If this were an experimental drug, this group would receive a placebo

Independent Variable
- What you are changing
(The amount of water each plant gets)

Dependent Variable
- What you are measuring
(time, mass, distance, volume, temperature…)

Measurable data


Evaluating Data
After we watch this video we'll practice some data evaluation
Living things and
Scientific Thinking

Organic Chemistry
What does "Organic"
mean to you?
Life Requires Carbon and Chemical Reactions
“Organic” means containing carbon
that occurs naturally
Every living thing is organic
Every living thing contains carbon
Carbon is essential to life because of the way that it bonds to other elements and molecules.

In the Science world...
Carbon: the Building Block of Life
Carbon is unique– it has
four
bonding locations (can bond with 4 different atoms)
Carbon-based molecules can be found in living things

CHONPS
C
arbon consistently bonds with
h
ydrogen,
o
xygen,
n
itrogen,
p
hosphorus, and
s
ulfur.

These molecules make up the building blocks of living things. . .remember CHONPS!

The Molecules of Life
And now for some more Biochemistry!
Warm up: Write down and answer these questions while everyone is signing in! Use your book and notes from the previous class.
Name the four types of molecules (polymers) that make up living things. pg45
What are the four common traits or characteristics of living things? Pg 5
Define Biodiversity.
What is Homeostasis?
Done? Complete the Standards based assessment printout (pg 33 only)

Monomers Vs. Polymers
Monomers
Small
molecules
Mono
means
one
Think of them like beads

Polymers
Larger
molecules
Poly
means
many
Several monomers make up a polymer
Think of them like a necklace made of beads

Carbohydrates
Starches and Sugars
Sources of energy
Monomer- monosaccharides
A carbohydrate functions as the main source of energy for living things.

Lipids
Fats and Oils
Useable energy AND parts of a cell’s structure
Monomer- fatty acid
Lipids store energy
They are used to help waterproofing
Lipids are found in various places in the body
Cell membranes, Lining of organs, Under the skin, part of the skin.

Proteins
The tiny molecular machines that do everything in the cell.
Hemoglobin (Transports oxygen in red blood cells)
Monomer- amino acid
Proteins' shape is what determines the function.
Proteins function to Provide structure, regulate cell processes, speed up chemical reactions, help with transport of molecules within the cell membrane.
They’re superheroes!

Nucleic Acids
DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid)
Instructions
RNA (Ribonucleic acid)
Instructions
Monomer- nucleotides

Chemical Reactions
Change substances into different substances by breaking and forming chemical bonds

Chemical Reactions are either
Chemical Reactions- Key Terms

Reactant
- what is being combined
Product
- what is made after a reaction
Bond Energy
- energy needed to break a bond
Activation Energy
- energy needed to start the reaction

Chemical reactions release or absorb energy.

Activation energy is the amount of energy that needs to be absorbed to start a chemical reaction.

A catalyst lowers activation energy.

One thing that can speed up a chemical reaction is a catalyst.
Catalysts are substances that speed up chemical reactions.
decrease activation energy
increase reaction rate


Enzymes are catalysts for chemical reactions in living things
Energy
Eukaryotes Vs. Prokaryotes
Cell Theory:
All organisms are made of cells
All cells are made by other living cells
The cell is the most basic unit of life


Eukaryotic
Nucleus
Membrane-bound organelles
Multi celled
DNA in the nucleus

Prokaryotic
Lacks nucleus
Single celled
DNA in the cytoplasm

*You and I are YOU-karyotic
*They’re so PRO that they only need one cell to get the job done!

Cell structure
Each organelle
(mini structure)
has a specific function (job)
1. Plasma membrane
2. Mitochondria
3. Centriole
4. Vacuoles
5. Lysosome
6. Nucleus
7. Ribosomes
8. Golgi Apparatus
9. Microtubules
10. Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
11.Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
12. Cytoplasm

Cell Organelles
There are 3 IMPORTANT differences between plant and animal cells.

Plant cells have :
1) Cell Walls
2) Chloroplasts for photosynthesis
3) Large Central Vacuole

Plant vs. Animal Cell

Nickname: “The Control Center” or the “brain” of the cell
Function: holds the DNA and tells the rest of the cell what to do

Parts:
Nucleolus: dark spot in the middle of the nucleus that helps make ribosomes

It’s the big dot/ball in the middle of the cell


6. Nucleus

Function: makes proteins
Found in all cells, prokaryotic and eukaryotic

Teeny little balls that are around the cell and attached to the Rough ER

7. Ribosomes
2 Types:
10. Rough ER:
Rough appearance because it has ribosomes
Function: helps make proteins, that’s why it has ribosomes

11. Smooth ER:
NO ribosomes
Function: makes fats or lipids
Look like vertical tubes

Endoplasmic Reticulum


Nickname: The shippers
Function: packages, modifies, and transports materials to different location inside/outside of the cell
Appearance: stack of pancakes

8. Golgi Complex/ Apparatus

Shape: circular (but larger than ribosomes)
Nickname: “Clean-up Crews” or the “stomach” of the cell

Function: to break down food into particles the rest of the cell can use and to destroy old cells
Look like medium-sized balls.
There are usually 3 or so in a cell.

5. Lysosomes:
2. Mitochondria


Nickname: “The Powerhouse” or “Power plant”
Function: Energy formation
Breaks down food to make ATP
ATP: is the major fuel for all cell activities that require energy

Looks sort of like a rollie pollie bug
Usually more than one in a cell

What does ATP stand for? Adenosine triphosphate



Nickname: “The jelly”
Function: Cell structure
Helps keep the cell from going flat.
Keeps all of the organelles in place

*Note: We also refer to the general inside of the cell as the cytoplasm


12. Cytoplasm

Function: Cell division
Helps to move parts of the cell (i.e. chromosomes) during cell division
Creation of new cells
They look like gears or corn on the cob



3. Centriole or Centrosome


Nickname: “The skeleton” or “scaffolding”
Function: Cell structure
Helps keep the cell from going flat or misshapened
They look like little tubes or pieces of spaghetti



9. Microtubules


Nickname: “The skin” of the cell

Function: To protect the cell and holds all of the cell’s contents inside of the cell


1. Cell Membrane or
Plasma Membrane
Plant Cell

Function: stores water

This is what makes lettuce crisp
When there is no water, the plant wilts
Look like a big bubble or sack filled with water

*Note: can be found in some animal cells

10. Vacuole

Function: traps energy from the sun to produce food for the plant cell
Green in color because of chlorophyll, which is a green pigment
Look like medium-sized green ovals

Note: Only found in plant cells

8. Chloroplasts

Function: provides support and protection to the cell membrane

Found
outside
the cell membrane in plant cells

12. Cell Wall
Photosynthesis
It’s time to learn about how cells “get energy”

Let’s get energized!

Vocabulary
Cell

The smallest unit of life. Also called the ‘building blocks’ of life


Chloroplast

The organelle responsible for catching light energy and conducting photosynthesis, found in plant cells

Chlorophyll

The green pigment inside of chloroplasts

What makes plants the color green

ATP

Adenosine Triphosphate

A molecule known as the “molecular currency" of intracellular energy transfer

The stuff that ‘powers cells’

*Think of ATP as the wallet (molecule) that holds the money (energy)

Liquid

H2O


Water

Gas

O2


Oxygen

Gas

CO2


Carbon Dioxide

The Basic Steps
Reactants
“React” with each other
These cells are called ‘producers,’
Photosynthesis takes place in Chloroplasts, which are powered by energy from Chlorophyll (molecule in chloroplasts) that absorbs light

Photosynthesis: Let’s read a little story!
http://www.beatricebiologist.com/2010/07/photosynthesis-is-pretty-awesome.html


Some Cells Can Make Energy

Products
What are "produced"
Then...
Chemical Equation
Cellular Respiration
*Cellular respiration is the
opposite
of photosynthesis. Woah!

*Breaks

down
sugars and other carbon-based molecules to
form

ATP

*Glycolysis- splits glucose into two 3-carbon molecules and 2 ATP

*Then it goes into the citric acid cycle (aka Krebs cycle) to produce more ATP.

*The reactants are glucose and oxygen and the products are carbon dioxide and water.

Diffusion
Regular/ Passive Diffusion
Facilitated Diffusion
Dissolved molecules move from an area of
high
concentration
to
an area of
low
concentration
The movement of Molecules!
Dissolved molecules move from an area of
high
concentration to an area of
low
concentration
with the
help
of a
transport protein
Structure versus Function
The
structure
(way something looks)
determines the
function
(the job)
Think about eating cereal... what tools do you need to successfully enjoy your meal?
Full transcript