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Chem. Chapters 15-16 by Sarah Asfari, Zahra Nizami, and Yusra Laster
Transcript of Chem. Chapters 15-16 by Sarah Asfari, Zahra Nizami, and Yusra Laster
A solution is comprised of two elements; a solute and a solvent.
The solute is the substance being dissolved, and becomes dispersed in the solvent.
The solvent is the dissolving medium, in which the solute is dissolved.
An aqueous solution is a solution in which water is the solvent, and the solute can be any other substance.
Solvation is the process in which individual solute ions break away from the crystal, become surrounded by the solvent’s molecules.
An electrolyte is a compound that conducts an electric current when it is in an aqueous solution or in the molten state.
A nonelectrolyte is a compound that does not conduct electric current in either an aqueous solution or in the molten state. Section 15-2 Main Concepts:
A solvent dissolves the solute. The solute becomes dispersed in the solvent, forming a solution.
As individual ions break away from the crystal, the negatively and positively charged ions become surrounded by solvent molecules and the ionic crystal dissolves.
All ionic compounds are electrolytes because they dissociate into ions when dissolved in a solution. Section 15-3 Vocabulary:
A suspension is a mixture from which particles settle out upon standing.
A colloid is a heterogeneous mixture contains particles that range in size from 1 nanometer (nm) to 1000 nm.
The Tyndall effect is the scattering of light by colloidal particles, exhibited by both colloids and suspensions.
The chaotic movement of colloidal particles, caused by the collision of molecules of the solvent with molecules of the colloidal particles.
An emulsion is a colloidal dispersion of a liquid in a liquid. Section 15-3 Section 15-3 Main Concepts:
A suspension differs from a solution because the particles of a suspension are much larger and do not stay suspended indefinitely.
Colloids have particles smaller than those in suspensions and larger than those in solutions. Section 16-1 Vocabulary:
Saturated Solution: A solution that contains the maximum amount of solute for a given quantity of solvent at a constant temperature and pressure.
Solubility: The amount of solute that dissolves in a given quantity of a solvent at a specified temperature and pressure to produce a saturated solution.
Unsaturated Solution: A solution that contains less solute than a saturated solution at a given temperature and pressure.
Miscible: When two liquids can dissolve in each other
Immiscible: When two liquids are unable to dissolve in each other.
Supersaturated Solution: When a solution contains more solute than it can theoretically hold at a given temperature.
Henry’s Law: At a given temperature, the solubility of a gas in a liquid is directly proportional to the pressure of the gas above the liquid. Section 16-1 Main Concepts:
The compositions of the solvent and the solute determine whether a substance will dissolve. Stirring (agitation), temperature, and the surface area of the dissolving particles determine how fast the substance will dissolve.
Solubility is expressed in grams of solute per 100 g of solvent.
Temperature affects the solubility of solid, liquid, and gaseous solutes in a solvent; both temperature and pressure affect the solubility of gaseous solutes. Section 16-1 Formulas:
Henry’s Law: S1/P1 = S2 /P2 Section 16-2 Vocabulary:
Concentration: A measure of the amount of solute that is dissolved in a given quantity of solvent.
Dilute Solution: A solution that contains a small amount of solute.
Concentrated Solution: A solution that contains a large amount of solute.
Molarity (M): The number of moles of solute dissolved per one liter of solution. Section 16-2 Main Concepts:
The terms “concentrated” and “diluted” are relative. They aren’t defined by a particular amount.
Diluting a solution reduces the number of moles of solute per unit volume, but the total number of moles of solute in solution does not change.
The concentration of a solution in percent can be expressed in two ways:
o The ratio of the volume of the solute to the volume of the solution
o The ratio of the mass of the solute to the mass of the solution. Section 16-2 Formulas:
Molarity = moles of solute/liters of solution
Moles of solute = M1 x M1 = M2 x M2
Percent by volume (% v/v) = (volume of solute/volume of solution) x 100%
Percent by mass (% m/m) = (mass of solute/mass of solution) x 100%