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The First World War WITH ANSWERS

The Impact of the First World War WITH ANSWERS
by

Elisabetta Paoli

on 3 October 2016

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Transcript of The First World War WITH ANSWERS

b) The nature of the war
The failure of the Schlieffen plan
1. August/September 1914 - the plan was almost
successful
.
2. The French plan = plan
XVII:
designed to recapture
Alsace-Lorraine
In the Battle of Frontiers,
300,000
French soldiers were killed by German
machine guns
.
The Russian offensive (August - September1914)
WHY DID THE WAR LAST SO LONG
a)Equal Strength
A. The Russian defeat against the Germans
1. Russians mobilized their forces faster than expected.
2.
Moltke
, German chief of staff sent troops from France/Belgium to East
Prussia
to help check the Russian offensive.
3. Russians attacked
Germans
in East Prussia and the Austrians in
Galicia.
4. Russians could have won the war by capturing
Berlin
as their soldiers outnumbered Germans by
3
to 1.
5. The Russians scored a tactical victory at Gumbinnen, but instead of pressing the advantage, they waited for the Second Army to arrive.
6.The Germans audaciously moved south to face the
Second Army before it could combine its strength
with the First.
7.German forces were aided by exceedingly poor
Russian communication security , so German intelligence
was aware of how poorly coordinated the two Russian
armies were.
8. The German generals,
Hindenburg
and
Ludendorff

defeated the Russian army at

Tanneburg
on
29th August 1914

TOTAL WAR p. 75
The Aircraft
The war at sea
b)
TANKS
a) POISON GAS
S. Trent
2. NEW METHODS OF WARFARE P. 74
PROPAGANDA AND CENORSHIP
Germany - France - Russia - Britain
STALEMATE 1915 - 1916
WHY DID IT LAST SO LONG?
On
28th June 1914
, Archduke Francis Ferdinand , heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, was assassinated in
Sarajevo
. Within
6 weeks
all Europe was
at war
.
The Schlieffen plan
Colonies 1800
Belgian resistance
1. On 5th September the French commander,
Joffre
attacked the Germans
2. The fighting lasted
a week
and is known as the
Battle of the Marne
(the river on the outskirts of
Paris
)
3. Moltke retreated his troops to the River
Aisne
and dug
trenches
4. The French were unable to
break

through
the German lines and also dug
trenches
THE WESTERN FRONT SEPTEMBER 1914
Allied strengths (British, French, Russians, later Italians
First used by
Germans
in 1915 in the second battle of Ypres. Only made life in the trenches more dreadful.



-
British
invention, used for the first time in
September
1914
- Were not very effective '.' top speed =
4mph
= very slow, broke down
- Only in
1918
tanks had an impact on the war


- First used for
reconnaissance
- Later equipped with machine guns and
bombs
- Were not yet effective in WW1


1. Not completely total '.' most
civilians
were not attacked
2. However, total '.' touched lives of
everybody
in Europe

Mobilisation
Huge numbers of
men
served in the armed forces
Britain introduced
conscription
only in 1916 - (before then soldiers
volunteered
) and mobilised
12.5
per cent of its men
Germany
15.4
%
France
16.9
%




The economic front
The Balkans
Italy joins the war
1.In
May
1915 Italy joined the war with the Allies even if it had allied with
Germany
and
Austria-Hungary
during the pre-war years.
2. By the secret treaty of
London
, Italy was promised
Trentino
, the
Tyrol
,
Istri
a and North Dalmatia.
3. Italian forces were
double
the Austrian forces but did not break the Austrian defences in the
12
battles on the Isonzo River.
4. These battles occupied Austro-Hungarian and German troops who otherwise could have been fighting in Russia or France.



THE STALEMATE CONTINUES
1916

It soon degenerated into a war of
attrition
(logoramento)
1.German forces would pass through
Belgium
and
Luxemburg
and capture
Paris
.
France would would capitulate in
42
days.
2. German troops would recross
Germany
and face
Russian
troops.
3. Risks: The majority of the German army moved
west
and left Germany unprotected from
Russian
attack
4. While the majority of German forces were in Belgium, only
one-eighth
were left in Germany to fight a
French
offensive.
1. The Belgians put up an
unexpected
resistance
2. The British Expeditionary Force
(BEF) of
300.000
men helped the
Belgians to slow down the
German
attack
B. The Russian victories against Austria
1. Russians successful against Austrians at the Battle of Lemburg
in August/September
1914
2. Half of Austrian forces were destroyed.
3. By December 1914 Austria-Hungary was
driven out of
Serbia
4.
Turkey
enters the war in October 1914
(anti-Russian and confident of Germany's victory)
THE EASTERN FRONT IN 1914
The Battle of the Marne 1914
The First Battle of Ypres (Belgium)
1. Both sides tried to
outflank
(
aggirare
) each other in the race for the
Channel Ports
2. Fierce
British
and French resistance at the first Battle of
Ypres
maintained Allies control of
Channel Ports
. Ypres was totally destroyed by the battle.
3. By the end of 1914 a system of
trenches
run from the
Channel
to
Switzerland
.
Ypres
- Allies had more
men
: Russians had largest
army
, Britain and France cld count on their
empires
for men.
- Britain possessed the largest navy. Its fleet blockaded Germany
- Britain and France could acquire resources from their
colonies
worldwide.
Central powers strengths ( Germany, Austria-Hungary, later Ottoman Empire/Turks and Bugaria)
- Germany had the finest
army
with trained men
- Germany had a powerful navy and could
blockade
Britain if it lost control of the seas and thus
starve
it.
- Central powers were close to one another and therefore had interior lines of
communication
and could use the good
railway
systems.
- The allies had more men BUT the Russian army was not
well-equipped
and the British volunteer army would not be ready until
1916
.
- Germany had become Europe's strongest
industrial
power.
- Germany's advance in 1914 made France lose its
industrial
area.
i) War on land
- In August 1914 = an offensive war = very bloody with many casualties(
vittime
) '.' defensive techniques = stronger than
offensive
ones:
use of
magazine rifle
(
fucile a ripetizione
) , machine gun and
artillery
against attacks.
- All sides had to dig trenches, use barbed wire and build deep bunkers to resist
artillery
attacks.
- This resulted in a
STALEMATE
(
stallo
)
- To overcome stalemate, heavier artillery was used BUT
- Artillery did not completely destroy barbed wire nor reach soldiers in deep
bunkers
- Artillery bombardment warned
enemies
of an attack , turned over ground .'. made infantry progress difficult.
- Generals had little contact with battle during an attack or with men who had broken through
enemy lines.
1. Great pre-war investments of Britain and Germany in their
navies
2. However, no major naval battle took place
3. Germany did not want to risk
High

Sees
fleet agst the larger British
Grand

fleet
4. The laying of mines (new and cheap means of naval warfare) prevented German ships from sailing
5. Germans used
U-boats
(Unterseeboot), submarines to sink allied merchant ships in an attempt to starve Britain.
6. Also neutral ships were sunk eg. the British liner
Luisitania

(transatlantico)
in May 1915. 1,100 lives were lost, 128 Americans. This resulted in U.S. President
Wilson
to issue an ultimatum to Germany.
7. Germany abandoned unrestricted
submarine
warfare.
U-boat
The sinking of the Lusitania
German submarine warfare 1915
GOVERNMENTS INTERVENE in the ECONOMY
1. The more guns and
munitions
a nation produced, the more likely it would win the war .'. governments asked industries to produce more guns and
munitions
( .'. gov. extended its power over the economy)
2. Shortage of
manpower
.'. women were called in to fight the
labour
shortage.

Britain introduced price
controls
, subsidies for
farmers
, food
rationing
France, to increase war production
demobilised
skilled workers from the army. Increased war production despite it lost its
industrial
areas.
Germany, with
Raw

Materials
Department, controlled: labour,
railways
, rationing and
prices
. Industries were assigned raw
materials
'.'Allies
blockaded
ships with raw materials). Big companies worked with government making huge
profits
.
England and France had more access to
raw
materials (from colonies) and bought them also from the
USA
All the populations suffered from food
shortage
and economic
difficulties
.

British WW1 soldier
German WW1 soldier
French WW1 soldier
All governments used propaganda and censorship
Operations of HMS Orvieto, one of the British ships assigned to Northern Patrol — the main naval operation dedicated to enforcing a British blockade of Germany and her allies.
The British blockade, tightened the US-UK commercial relationship




- Churchill: to win the war = open new fronts.'. tried to defeat and invade
Turkey
.
- Britain tried to open up
Dardanelles
straits for allied shipping to help Russia.
- The Gallipoli campaign - APRIL 1915. Turkish defense well prepared and allied forces were stranded on narrow beach of
Gallipoli
. Main troops: volunteers from Australia and New Zealand. The campaign was abandoned in
JANUARY
1916.

TWO BLOODY AND USELESS BATTLES:
VERDUN AND THE SOMME
1. German Commander
Falkenhayn
decided to attack the system of fortresses at Verdun
2. Falkenhayn did not expect to break through the French lines but hoped to weaken the French.
3. French commander
Petain
rotated his divisions so
75
% of French infantry suffered the "horrors" of Verdun.




1915 - Austria-Hungary conquers Serbia
The nominal cause of the war was Austria-Hungary's effort to punish Serbia for its sponsorship of anti-Austrian terrorism, and in 1915 the Habsburgs succeeded. By the end of the year, the remnants of the Serbian army had retreated into Albania and been evacuated by sea. Allied forces would eventually liberate Serbia in 1918, moving through Greece and Bulgaria.
The Battle of the Somme
July-November 1916

To help the French, British General
Haig
launched an attack against the Germans along the River Somme



The Battle of Jutland
May - June 1916

1. The War's main naval battle.
2. The German High fleet ventured out of port and met
the British Grand fleet.
3. The German fleet sank more British ships and killed
more British sailors.The losses weren't sufficient to break
the British Navy's hold over the North Sea.
4. The German fleet retreated back to port until the
end of the war.

The Brusilov offensive
1. The Russian Commander,
Brusilov
attacked The Austro-Hungarian forces in June
1916
2, Romania hoping to annex
Transylvania
joined the Allied forces but was defeated.

The Situation at the end of 1916
1. 1916 = stalemate
2.
Llyod
George becomes Prime Minister of Britain.
3. In Germany, General Falkenhayn is replaced by
Hindenburg
and
Ludendorff
4. In France, General
Nivelle
replaces General Joffre.
5. In November 1916, the Habsburg Emperor, Franz-Joseph died and is replaced by
Karl
who realizes that if war continues, Austria-Hungary would
disintegrate
.

1917 and the RUSSIAN REVOLUTION
1. Following the collapse of the Czarist regime in the
February
1917 Revolution, a provisional government led by Aleksander
Kerensky
came to power in Russia.
2. Kerensky's government was unable to impose discipline on the unraveling Russian military or conduct effective military operations.
3. German authorities allowed Vladimir
Lenin
, then in exile in Switzerland, to travel via special train through German-occupied territory into Russia where he and his
Bolshevik
allies took political leadership of the anti-war cause.
4. After seizing power in the
October
Revolution, the new Bolshevik government was forced to negotiate peace with the Germans from a position of extreme weakness.
5. At the Treaty of
Brest-Litovsk
in March 1918, Russia abandoned its previous rule over Finland, most of Poland, Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, Ukraine, and Belorussia.
6. German plans called for this territory to be reorganized as a series of German-dominated satellite states but the failure of the Spring Offensive in the West and the subsequent German
surrender
rendered the new order in the East irrelevant.

A key innovation was the synchronization gear,
which allowed pilots to fire a gun through a
spinning propeller without damaging the blades.
This created a new class of fighter airplanes, and
a new class of pilots to fly them.
The most famous of these "flying aces" was the
German pilot Manfred von Richthofen,
known as the
Red Baron
for the distinctive

colour
of his airplanes
shovel
The new German supergun
1. Both sides were racing to develop bigger
guns with ever-increasing range.
2. The new German supergun could hit
a target 80 miles away
3.The Germans used it to shell Paris
from their side of the front, which was
more than 60 miles away
4.While this gun was technologically
impressive, it proved to have limited
military value. The gun's poor accuracy
meant that the Germans were hitting
random targets in Paris, alarming
Parisians but not doing any real damage
to the war effort.
5. By 1918, the German artillery officer
Georg Bruchmüller had perfected the art
of using highly focused and precisely
timed artillery barrages to devastate
enemy positions in preparation for a
ground offensive by German troops.

Ottoman Turks commit genocide against the
Armenians, 1915
In 1915, frustrated by early setbacks in the war, leaders of the Muslim-majority Ottoman empire launched a campaign to purge non-Muslim elements. They began persecuting the Armenians, a Christian ethnic group whose ancestral homeland straddled the border between the Russian and Ottoman empires. Hundreds of thousands of Armenian men, women, and children were slaughtered. According to some estimates, as many as three quarters of the 2 million Armenians in the Ottoman Empire were killed. Hundreds of thousands of Armenians fled their homeland, producing significant Armenian diaspora populations in the United States, Russia, and elsewhere. No one was punished for these attrocities, and to this day it's a sensitive topic for the Turkish government. As recently as 2007, diplomatic pressure from Turkey dissuaded Congress from officially recognizing the incident as a genocide.
WHY WERE THE CENTRAL POWERS DEFEATED?
THE TURNING POINT
ON 6TH APRIL 1917
THE
USA
ENTERS THE WAR
HOW THE USA ENTERS THE WAR
1. HIDENBURG &LUDENDORFF = U-boat = Germany's only hope of victory by
starving
Britain into surrender
2. ,'. Germany announced that it wld
sink
all ships in
Allied
waters.
3. The telegram from German Foreign Secretary, Zimmermann to the German Ambassador in
Mexico
was intercepted.
4. The telegram promised
Texas
, New Mexico and
Arizona
to Mexico if it declared war on the
USA
.
5. The telegram was published on American newspapers causing a wave of anti-
German
sentiment.
6. In March 1917, 3 Am ships were

torpedoed
(silurate)



On 6th April 1917, President
Wilson
declared war on Germany
The German proposal
to Mexico

Mexico, meanwhile, realized that it would have no hope of defeating the United States and rejected Germany's proposal.
ALLIED PROBLEMS 1917 p. 91
1. In April, Nivelle's efforts to breakthrough Hidenburg lines
failed
.
2. Large part of the French army
mutinied
.
3. Order was restored by
Petain
, who replaced Nivelle.
4. July 1917 British forces forced a third attack on
Ypres
(or
Passchendaele
); useless slaughter.
5. On Eastern Front: Russia = no longer a military threat = Germany transferred soldiers to
Western
front.
6. The German U-boats sank 1 in 4 ships going to Britain and Britain was threatened with
starvation
.
7. October 1917 German and Austrians defeated Italians at
Caporetto
.

CENTRAL POWERS PROBLEMS
1917

1.July 1917,
Greece
joined the allies. Allied troops cld move agst Bulgaria
2. The Turks faced a serious
Arab
revolt. The British advanced from Egypt and captured
Jerusalem
.
3. Food
shortages
helped undermine civilian morale

The German SPRING OFFENSIVE
1918

1. Germany's offensive was well planned: in March broke through
British
lines on the Somme
3. In April Germany was successful in
Flander
s.
4. May/June Germany broke through
French
lines and came close to Paris.
5. Germans were stopped along the River
Marne
(like in 1914)
6. French general
Foch
= overall commander, held troops in
reserve
and waited for American fresh soldiers until July 1918.
7. On 8th
August
British forces with tanks broke German lines at
Amiens
. The allies then advanced.

DEFEAT OF GERMANY'S ALLIES
1918

1. On 30th
September
Bulgaria surrendered.
2. British forces continued advancing in Middle East. On 30th
October
Turkey agreed on an armistice.
3. In October the Italians were victorious against the
Austrians
at Vittorio Veneto.
4. In October the Czechs took
Prague
, the Serbs and Croats proclaimed the establishment of the Yugoslav state. Hungary declared its independence from
Austria
.The Habsburg Empire had disintegrated!
5. On 3rd November
Austria
signed an armistice.

GERMAN SURRENDER
1. September 1918, Hindenburg and Ludendorff resign, leaving the
Reichstag
in control
2. Prince Max of Baden, of the new German government asked President
Wilson
for an armistice.
3. Rumours that the High Sees fleet wld go on a
do-or-die
mission, led to a
mutiny
of the German sailors at
Wilheimshaven
on 28th Oct. The revolution spread to
Kiel

4.
Strikes
and mutinies followed in Nov. 1918 leading to the proclamation of a
republic
.

Costs of the War
1. 10
million
men died
2. 5 million
civilians
due to diseases related to food
shortages
.
3. A great
influenza
epidemic in 1918-19 killed
millions
of people worldwide.

During the summer of 1917 Under
General Pershing
, American forces used massed infantry attacks with little artillery support and high casualties
Full transcript