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The First World War WITH ANSWERS
Transcript of The First World War WITH ANSWERS
The failure of the Schlieffen plan
1. August/September 1914 - the plan was almost
2. The French plan = plan
designed to recapture
In the Battle of Frontiers,
French soldiers were killed by German
The Russian offensive (August - September1914)
WHY DID THE WAR LAST SO LONG
A. The Russian defeat against the Germans
1. Russians mobilized their forces faster than expected.
, German chief of staff sent troops from France/Belgium to East
to help check the Russian offensive.
3. Russians attacked
in East Prussia and the Austrians in
4. Russians could have won the war by capturing
as their soldiers outnumbered Germans by
5. The Russians scored a tactical victory at Gumbinnen, but instead of pressing the advantage, they waited for the Second Army to arrive.
6.The Germans audaciously moved south to face the
Second Army before it could combine its strength
with the First.
7.German forces were aided by exceedingly poor
Russian communication security , so German intelligence
was aware of how poorly coordinated the two Russian
8. The German generals,
defeated the Russian army at
29th August 1914
TOTAL WAR p. 75
The war at sea
a) POISON GAS
2. NEW METHODS OF WARFARE P. 74
PROPAGANDA AND CENORSHIP
Germany - France - Russia - Britain
STALEMATE 1915 - 1916
WHY DID IT LAST SO LONG?
28th June 1914
, Archduke Francis Ferdinand , heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, was assassinated in
all Europe was
The Schlieffen plan
1. On 5th September the French commander,
attacked the Germans
2. The fighting lasted
and is known as the
Battle of the Marne
(the river on the outskirts of
3. Moltke retreated his troops to the River
4. The French were unable to
the German lines and also dug
THE WESTERN FRONT SEPTEMBER 1914
Allied strengths (British, French, Russians, later Italians
First used by
in 1915 in the second battle of Ypres. Only made life in the trenches more dreadful.
invention, used for the first time in
- Were not very effective '.' top speed =
= very slow, broke down
- Only in
tanks had an impact on the war
- First used for
- Later equipped with machine guns and
- Were not yet effective in WW1
1. Not completely total '.' most
were not attacked
2. However, total '.' touched lives of
Huge numbers of
served in the armed forces
only in 1916 - (before then soldiers
) and mobilised
per cent of its men
The economic front
Italy joins the war
1915 Italy joined the war with the Allies even if it had allied with
during the pre-war years.
2. By the secret treaty of
, Italy was promised
a and North Dalmatia.
3. Italian forces were
the Austrian forces but did not break the Austrian defences in the
battles on the Isonzo River.
4. These battles occupied Austro-Hungarian and German troops who otherwise could have been fighting in Russia or France.
THE STALEMATE CONTINUES
It soon degenerated into a war of
1.German forces would pass through
France would would capitulate in
2. German troops would recross
3. Risks: The majority of the German army moved
and left Germany unprotected from
4. While the majority of German forces were in Belgium, only
were left in Germany to fight a
1. The Belgians put up an
2. The British Expeditionary Force
men helped the
Belgians to slow down the
B. The Russian victories against Austria
1. Russians successful against Austrians at the Battle of Lemburg
2. Half of Austrian forces were destroyed.
3. By December 1914 Austria-Hungary was
driven out of
enters the war in October 1914
(anti-Russian and confident of Germany's victory)
THE EASTERN FRONT IN 1914
The Battle of the Marne 1914
The First Battle of Ypres (Belgium)
1. Both sides tried to
) each other in the race for the
and French resistance at the first Battle of
maintained Allies control of
. Ypres was totally destroyed by the battle.
3. By the end of 1914 a system of
run from the
- Allies had more
: Russians had largest
, Britain and France cld count on their
- Britain possessed the largest navy. Its fleet blockaded Germany
- Britain and France could acquire resources from their
Central powers strengths ( Germany, Austria-Hungary, later Ottoman Empire/Turks and Bugaria)
- Germany had the finest
with trained men
- Germany had a powerful navy and could
Britain if it lost control of the seas and thus
- Central powers were close to one another and therefore had interior lines of
and could use the good
- The allies had more men BUT the Russian army was not
and the British volunteer army would not be ready until
- Germany had become Europe's strongest
- Germany's advance in 1914 made France lose its
i) War on land
- In August 1914 = an offensive war = very bloody with many casualties(
) '.' defensive techniques = stronger than
fucile a ripetizione
) , machine gun and
- All sides had to dig trenches, use barbed wire and build deep bunkers to resist
- This resulted in a
- To overcome stalemate, heavier artillery was used BUT
- Artillery did not completely destroy barbed wire nor reach soldiers in deep
- Artillery bombardment warned
of an attack , turned over ground .'. made infantry progress difficult.
- Generals had little contact with battle during an attack or with men who had broken through
1. Great pre-war investments of Britain and Germany in their
2. However, no major naval battle took place
3. Germany did not want to risk
fleet agst the larger British
4. The laying of mines (new and cheap means of naval warfare) prevented German ships from sailing
5. Germans used
(Unterseeboot), submarines to sink allied merchant ships in an attempt to starve Britain.
6. Also neutral ships were sunk eg. the British liner
in May 1915. 1,100 lives were lost, 128 Americans. This resulted in U.S. President
to issue an ultimatum to Germany.
7. Germany abandoned unrestricted
The sinking of the Lusitania
German submarine warfare 1915
GOVERNMENTS INTERVENE in the ECONOMY
1. The more guns and
a nation produced, the more likely it would win the war .'. governments asked industries to produce more guns and
( .'. gov. extended its power over the economy)
2. Shortage of
.'. women were called in to fight the
Britain introduced price
, subsidies for
France, to increase war production
skilled workers from the army. Increased war production despite it lost its
Department, controlled: labour,
, rationing and
. Industries were assigned raw
ships with raw materials). Big companies worked with government making huge
England and France had more access to
materials (from colonies) and bought them also from the
All the populations suffered from food
British WW1 soldier
German WW1 soldier
French WW1 soldier
All governments used propaganda and censorship
Operations of HMS Orvieto, one of the British ships assigned to Northern Patrol — the main naval operation dedicated to enforcing a British blockade of Germany and her allies.
The British blockade, tightened the US-UK commercial relationship
- Churchill: to win the war = open new fronts.'. tried to defeat and invade
- Britain tried to open up
straits for allied shipping to help Russia.
- The Gallipoli campaign - APRIL 1915. Turkish defense well prepared and allied forces were stranded on narrow beach of
. Main troops: volunteers from Australia and New Zealand. The campaign was abandoned in
TWO BLOODY AND USELESS BATTLES:
VERDUN AND THE SOMME
1. German Commander
decided to attack the system of fortresses at Verdun
2. Falkenhayn did not expect to break through the French lines but hoped to weaken the French.
3. French commander
rotated his divisions so
% of French infantry suffered the "horrors" of Verdun.
1915 - Austria-Hungary conquers Serbia
The nominal cause of the war was Austria-Hungary's effort to punish Serbia for its sponsorship of anti-Austrian terrorism, and in 1915 the Habsburgs succeeded. By the end of the year, the remnants of the Serbian army had retreated into Albania and been evacuated by sea. Allied forces would eventually liberate Serbia in 1918, moving through Greece and Bulgaria.
The Battle of the Somme
To help the French, British General
launched an attack against the Germans along the River Somme
The Battle of Jutland
May - June 1916
1. The War's main naval battle.
2. The German High fleet ventured out of port and met
the British Grand fleet.
3. The German fleet sank more British ships and killed
more British sailors.The losses weren't sufficient to break
the British Navy's hold over the North Sea.
4. The German fleet retreated back to port until the
end of the war.
The Brusilov offensive
1. The Russian Commander,
attacked The Austro-Hungarian forces in June
2, Romania hoping to annex
joined the Allied forces but was defeated.
The Situation at the end of 1916
1. 1916 = stalemate
George becomes Prime Minister of Britain.
3. In Germany, General Falkenhayn is replaced by
4. In France, General
replaces General Joffre.
5. In November 1916, the Habsburg Emperor, Franz-Joseph died and is replaced by
who realizes that if war continues, Austria-Hungary would
1917 and the RUSSIAN REVOLUTION
1. Following the collapse of the Czarist regime in the
1917 Revolution, a provisional government led by Aleksander
came to power in Russia.
2. Kerensky's government was unable to impose discipline on the unraveling Russian military or conduct effective military operations.
3. German authorities allowed Vladimir
, then in exile in Switzerland, to travel via special train through German-occupied territory into Russia where he and his
allies took political leadership of the anti-war cause.
4. After seizing power in the
Revolution, the new Bolshevik government was forced to negotiate peace with the Germans from a position of extreme weakness.
5. At the Treaty of
in March 1918, Russia abandoned its previous rule over Finland, most of Poland, Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, Ukraine, and Belorussia.
6. German plans called for this territory to be reorganized as a series of German-dominated satellite states but the failure of the Spring Offensive in the West and the subsequent German
rendered the new order in the East irrelevant.
A key innovation was the synchronization gear,
which allowed pilots to fire a gun through a
spinning propeller without damaging the blades.
This created a new class of fighter airplanes, and
a new class of pilots to fly them.
The most famous of these "flying aces" was the
German pilot Manfred von Richthofen,
known as the
for the distinctive
of his airplanes
The new German supergun
1. Both sides were racing to develop bigger
guns with ever-increasing range.
2. The new German supergun could hit
a target 80 miles away
3.The Germans used it to shell Paris
from their side of the front, which was
more than 60 miles away
4.While this gun was technologically
impressive, it proved to have limited
military value. The gun's poor accuracy
meant that the Germans were hitting
random targets in Paris, alarming
Parisians but not doing any real damage
to the war effort.
5. By 1918, the German artillery officer
Georg Bruchmüller had perfected the art
of using highly focused and precisely
timed artillery barrages to devastate
enemy positions in preparation for a
ground offensive by German troops.
Ottoman Turks commit genocide against the
In 1915, frustrated by early setbacks in the war, leaders of the Muslim-majority Ottoman empire launched a campaign to purge non-Muslim elements. They began persecuting the Armenians, a Christian ethnic group whose ancestral homeland straddled the border between the Russian and Ottoman empires. Hundreds of thousands of Armenian men, women, and children were slaughtered. According to some estimates, as many as three quarters of the 2 million Armenians in the Ottoman Empire were killed. Hundreds of thousands of Armenians fled their homeland, producing significant Armenian diaspora populations in the United States, Russia, and elsewhere. No one was punished for these attrocities, and to this day it's a sensitive topic for the Turkish government. As recently as 2007, diplomatic pressure from Turkey dissuaded Congress from officially recognizing the incident as a genocide.
WHY WERE THE CENTRAL POWERS DEFEATED?
THE TURNING POINT
ON 6TH APRIL 1917
ENTERS THE WAR
HOW THE USA ENTERS THE WAR
1. HIDENBURG &LUDENDORFF = U-boat = Germany's only hope of victory by
Britain into surrender
2. ,'. Germany announced that it wld
all ships in
3. The telegram from German Foreign Secretary, Zimmermann to the German Ambassador in
4. The telegram promised
, New Mexico and
to Mexico if it declared war on the
5. The telegram was published on American newspapers causing a wave of anti-
6. In March 1917, 3 Am ships were
On 6th April 1917, President
declared war on Germany
The German proposal
Mexico, meanwhile, realized that it would have no hope of defeating the United States and rejected Germany's proposal.
ALLIED PROBLEMS 1917 p. 91
1. In April, Nivelle's efforts to breakthrough Hidenburg lines
2. Large part of the French army
3. Order was restored by
, who replaced Nivelle.
4. July 1917 British forces forced a third attack on
); useless slaughter.
5. On Eastern Front: Russia = no longer a military threat = Germany transferred soldiers to
6. The German U-boats sank 1 in 4 ships going to Britain and Britain was threatened with
7. October 1917 German and Austrians defeated Italians at
CENTRAL POWERS PROBLEMS
joined the allies. Allied troops cld move agst Bulgaria
2. The Turks faced a serious
revolt. The British advanced from Egypt and captured
helped undermine civilian morale
The German SPRING OFFENSIVE
1. Germany's offensive was well planned: in March broke through
lines on the Somme
3. In April Germany was successful in
4. May/June Germany broke through
lines and came close to Paris.
5. Germans were stopped along the River
(like in 1914)
6. French general
= overall commander, held troops in
and waited for American fresh soldiers until July 1918.
7. On 8th
British forces with tanks broke German lines at
. The allies then advanced.
DEFEAT OF GERMANY'S ALLIES
1. On 30th
2. British forces continued advancing in Middle East. On 30th
Turkey agreed on an armistice.
3. In October the Italians were victorious against the
at Vittorio Veneto.
4. In October the Czechs took
, the Serbs and Croats proclaimed the establishment of the Yugoslav state. Hungary declared its independence from
.The Habsburg Empire had disintegrated!
5. On 3rd November
signed an armistice.
1. September 1918, Hindenburg and Ludendorff resign, leaving the
2. Prince Max of Baden, of the new German government asked President
for an armistice.
3. Rumours that the High Sees fleet wld go on a
mission, led to a
of the German sailors at
on 28th Oct. The revolution spread to
and mutinies followed in Nov. 1918 leading to the proclamation of a
Costs of the War
2. 5 million
due to diseases related to food
3. A great
epidemic in 1918-19 killed
of people worldwide.
During the summer of 1917 Under
, American forces used massed infantry attacks with little artillery support and high casualties