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The Human Genome Project

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abdullah shafiqi

on 7 January 2013

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Transcript of The Human Genome Project

The Human
Genome Project By: Abdullah and Sara What is the Human Genome Project? - The human genomic map consists of 3 billion base pairs, the entire genome is spread unevenly across 23 chromosomes
- Scattered within the human genome are 20,000 to 25,000 genes, far less than expected
- 5% of the human genome is coding DNA, the rest are non-coding DNA
- In relation to evolution, the sequence of base pairs for growing a tail was present in the human genome, this discovery lead to belief that there are many sequences that code for features we don't have
- The genome of other animals such as mice and fruit flies were also being analyzed but weren't as much as a priority as the human genome
- All humans have an approximately 0.1% difference in their genomes History and Background Information - DNA sequencing of the human genome officially started in 1990 and ended in 2003
- The project was completed by the Department of Energy and National Institutes of Health
- The project was expected to take 15 years but thanks to advancement in biotechnology it took 13 years
- The total cost to complete the Human Genome Project was $3 billion The Human Genome Project was an effort to DNA sequence the entire human genome with 99.9% accuracy leading to the blueprint of human life. Ethics of the Human Genome and Society The fact that it is possible to obtain the blueprint of life means that after the Human Genome Project, doctors could search for specific sequences in one's genome that could lead to diseases and health risks. This could be positive if one is prone to a health risk that has a cure or treatments to prevent it. However, this could be a negative thing if one is prone to a health risk that has no cure or treatment to be prevented because it would cause unhelpable anxiety and panic. The red part of this persons DNA sequence means that they are prone to Parkingson's Disease The fact that there are some pre-existing health issues and diseases coded by specific sequences in some people's genomes raises the question "should insurance companies be allowed to deny coverage to pre-existing health issues and diseases?" Luckily living in Canada we don't need to be afraid of situations like this, but throughout the world are many nations who don't have free healthcare in which it's citizens may face hardships of being neglected healthcare. If insurance companies were to deny coverage for healthcare then many people would be penalized for something which they had absolutely no control over. The question that remains is that should insurance companies or families lose money? Facts Many biologists, researchers, and scientists felt as if 13 years spent and $3 billion worth of funding that the Human Genome Project got was not worth it at all and that it could have been put to better use. By quite a numerous amount of people, it was felt that it was absolutely pointless to spend such a large amount of money and time on mostly of what consisted of non-coding DNA which to them had little or no worth. Although the Human Genome Project did provide advancement in biotechnology, to some the results weren't as great. After the Human Genome Project, the knowledge of the human genome accelerated the development of new strategies for the diagnosis and prevention of many diseases such as diabetes, cancer, heart disease and so on. This has eased and saved the lives of many people living with such diseases and health problems. In 1966, the head scientists of the Human Genome Project came to conclusion that all sequence data produced by the Human Genome Project should be out in the open for anyone to use. The reasoning for this was to encourage scientific research and benefit society. To expose the sequences learned, scientists created an online database for other scientists around the world to be able to access for their own analysis and research. The database was extremely popular and had 200,000 visits a day. The Human Genome Project donated 5% of its annual research budget to a program that handled the ethical, legal, and social barriers and uncertainties of the research done on the human genome that did or at the time could arise. Some issues they discussed were what exactly is the normal human genome since every human's genome is different, whether or not one's genome should be private or public, and so on. This organization also made sure that animals that were being used such as mice weren't harmed. In the human body our entire genomes are spread unevenly on 23 different chromosomes shown at the top. Each chromosome holds a portion of our genome. Applications of the Human Genome Project This is an example of complications in sequencing that could code for health issues. Methods Used to Sequence DNA Gene therapy is a treatment where a healthy gene is inserted into a patient's cells to:

replace a mutated gene that has an incorrect sequence of base pairs which causes diseases
inactivate a mutated gene that is functioning improperly
help fight a disease

This is very beneficial because sometimes it is a replacement for surgery and drugs. Gene Therapy for tumors Knowledge of the human genome has allowed many technologies to become possible Pharmacogenomics is the study of how genes impact a person's response and side effects to drugs. This study is both a mixture of pharmacology; which is the study of drugs and genomics; which is the study of genes and their functions. Benefits that this study has brought forth are that effective, safe medications and doses can be given to a patient in correlation to their genetic makeup.Many drugs that are currently available are “one size fits all,” but they don’t work the same way for everyone. It can be difficult to predict who will benefit from a medication, who will not respond at all, and who will experience negative side effects (called adverse drug reactions). Adverse drug reactions are a significant cause of hospitalizations and deaths in the United States. With the knowledge gained from the Human Genome Project, researchers are learning how inherited differences in genes affect the body’s response to medications. These genetic differences will be used to predict whether a medication will be effective for a particular person and to help prevent adverse drug reactions.

The field of pharmacogenomics is still in its infancy. Its use is currently quite limited, but new approaches are under study in clinical trials. In the future, pharmacogenomics will allow the development of tailored drugs to treat a wide range of health problems, including cardiovascular disease, Alzheimer disease, cancer, HIV/AIDS, and asthma.
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