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Constitutional Amendments

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Olivia Copti

on 6 December 2012

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Transcript of Constitutional Amendments

RAPPS Text "Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances." Meaning 2nd Amendment Meaning Cont... 1st Amendment 3rd Amendment 4th Amendment 5th Amendment 6th Amendment 8th Amendment 9th Amendment Effects Views Today 10th Amendment 13th Amendment 14th Amendment 15th Amendment 16th Amendement 19th Amendment 20th Amendement 22nd Amendment 24th Amendement 25th Amendment 26th Amendment Supreme Court Cases Text Meaning Supreme Court Cases Text Meaning Supreme Court Cases Text Meaning Cont... Supreme Court Cases Text Meaning Text Meaning Supreme Court Cases Text Meaning Court Cases Text Meaning Court Cases Text Meaning Views Today Text Meaning Court Cases Text Meaning Supreme Court Cases Cont... Views Today Text Meaning Court Cases Text Court Cases Other Key Info Meaning Text Meaning Text Meaning Extra Info Text Meaning Court Cases Text Meaning Other Info Text Meaning Court Cases ” No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.” Assures the right of citizens to not to be deprived of “life, liberty, or property, without due process of law,” including protections against double jeopardy, self-incrimination, and government seizure of property without rightful compensation.
Overall, it protects the right of people in court. • Gurantees these protections:

o No one can be tried for a serious crime unless a grand jury has decided there is enough evidence to justify a trial.

o A person who is found innocent of a crime may not be tried again for the same offense. Prevents continued harassment of individuals in order to convict them of a crime for which they have already been found innocent.

o No one may be forced to testify against himself or herself. As a result, people questioned by the police, on trial, or testifying before a congressional hearing may refuse to answer wuestions if their answers would connect them with a criminal act. The gov’t must establish a person’s guilt by finding independent evidence of the person’s involvement with the crime. Individuals cannot be required to convict themselves

o States that gov’t may not deprive any person of life, liberty, or property without due proves of law; meaning that the gov’t must follow proper constitutional procedures in trials and in other actions it takes against individuals

o Defines govt’s right of eminent domain (the power of gov’t to take private property for public use. The gov’t must pay a fair price for property taken and must use it in a way that benefits the public. Protects religious rights
- freedom of religion & sep. of church & state
Protects freedom of speech and of the press
- right to criticize gov. officials/decisions, spread unpopular ideas
American press not subject to:
- prior restraint: gov censorship of info before published or broadcast Schenck v. United States (1919):
Through his literature, Schenck encouraged young men to resist the WWI draft. He was convicted in 1917 and found guilty, though his argument was valid; the 1st Amendment administers the right to freedom of speech. Miller v. California (1973): After Marvin Miller Distributed "obscene material" to others, he was found guilty by the Supreme Court who decided his ads were not protected by the 1st Amendment (Freedom of Expression) Buckley v. Valeo (1976) The 1971 Federal Election Campaign Act (FECA) was created to regulate political campaigns. James Buckley argued some of its provisions to be unconstitutional. The right to Free Speech allows for contributions to candidates. Other Court Cases pertaining to 1st Amendment: GITLOW V. NEW YORK (1925)
Near v Minnesota (1931)
Engel vs. Vitale (1962)
New York Times v. Sullivan (1964)
Griswold v. Connecticut (1965)
Tinker v. Des Moines School District (1969)
Lemon v. Kurtz man (1971)
New York Times Co. v. United States (1971)
Wisconsin v. Yoder (1972) Hazelwood School District v. Kuhlmeier (1987) Trial Rights "In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the state and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the assistance of counsel for his defense." Protects rights of people charged with federal crimes to protect themselves in court trial
Gives accused many important rights; Right to:
- Speedy, public trial by impartial jury
- Ask to be tried by judge alone
- Change of venue (of trial)
- Know charges against them (to prepare defense)
- Hear/question all witnesses fighting against them & allow some to testify for them
- Be defended by a lawyer Miranda v. Arizona (1966)- Right to counsel: Gideon v. Wainwright (1963): Earl Gideon was arrested in 1961 for breaking and entering into a pool house in Florida and stealing money. Gideon did not have the money to pay for a lawyer, and the Supreme Court ruled that states must provide defense attorneys to those who cannot afford a lawyer for themselves when charged with a serious crime. "You have the right to remain silent...."
Ernesto Miranda was charged with kidnapping and assault, found guilty, and sentenced to 20 years in prison. He was forced to confess without being told of his right to counsel. The Chief Justice said that is the conviction is made without making the rights of the accused known to them, it may be overturned. "Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted." Prohibits excessive bail
Prevents judges from ordering convicted to pay excessive fine
*Bans “cruel & unusual punishment” for crimes
Limits use of death penalty in some cases "The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation." "The right of citizens of the United States to vote in any primary or other election for President or Vice President, for electors for President or Vice President, or for Senator or Representative in Congress, shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any State by reason of failure to pay any poll tax or other tax." "The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.” Unlike other amendments, the 10th did not add anything to the constitution. Instead, it was intended to reaffirm the relationship between the national and state governments. The 10th amendment confirms that the people and states have rights that the national government may not assume.

Section 1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.

Section 2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. Outlaws slavery
-Means that a person can not own another person or legally and they can not legally force that person into servitude Selective Draft Law Cases of 1918-decides that the draft is not considered nationally enforced illegal servitude US vs. Krozminski (1988)- decides that involuntary servitude cannot be forced upon someone through threats, physical force, state laws, or psychological deceit involving an immigrant, a minor or a mentally challenged person Quarter Soldiers No Soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the consent of the Owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law. It means that citizens are not expected
to house soldiers, except for if
Congress happens to decide
to force people to house soldiers.
(This has yet to occur) Englom vs. Carey- National guard was sent to stay at a prison while the prison officials were on strike. It was unconstitutional because Congress did not say anything about it. http://www.apsnet.org/publications/apsnetfeatures/Article%20Images/Poinsettia_Fig07.jpg Abolish Slavery Start of Terms and Succession to Presidency Section 1. The terms of the President and Vice President shall end at noon on the 20th day of January, and the terms of Senators and Representatives at noon on the 3d day of January, of the years in which such terms would have ended if this article had not been ratified; and the terms of their successors shall then begin.

Section 2. The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and such meeting shall begin at noon on the 3d day of January, unless they shall by law appoint a different day.

Section 3. If, at the time fixed for the beginning of the term of the President, the President elect shall have died, the Vice President elect shall become President. If a President shall not have been chosen before the time fixed for the beginning of his term, or if the President elect shall have failed to qualify, then the Vice President elect shall act as President until a President shall have qualified; and the Congress may by law provide for the case wherein neither a President elect nor a Vice President elect shall have qualified, declaring who shall then act as President, or the manner in which one who is to act shall be selected, and such person shall act accordingly until a President or Vice President shall have qualified.
Section 4. The Congress may by law provide for the case of the death of any of the persons from whom the House of Representatives may choose a President whenever the right of choice shall have devolved upon them, and for the case of the death of any of the persons from whom the Senate may choose a Vice President whenever the right of choice shall have devolved upon them.

Section 5. Sections 1 and 2 shall take effect on the 15th day of October following the ratification of this article.
Section 6. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of three-fourths of the several States within seven years from the date of its submission. -Shortens time between election day and inauguration, for both the president and congress.
-This is meant to shorten a president's lame duck period on his way out of office
-It also sets the process of succession in the case that the President or another major federal official dies in office Section 1. In case of the removal of the President from office or of his death or resignation, the Vice President shall become President.

Section 2. Whenever there is a vacancy in the office of the Vice President, the President shall nominate a Vice President who shall take office upon confirmation by a majority vote of both Houses of Congress.

Section 3. Whenever the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that he is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, and until he transmits to them a written declaration to the contrary, such powers and duties shall be discharged by the Vice President as Acting President.

Section 4. Whenever the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers of the executive departments or of such other body as Congress may by law provide, transmit to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice President shall immediately assume the powers and duties of the office as Acting President.
Thereafter, when the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that no inability exists, he shall resume the powers and duties of his office unless the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers of the executive department or of such other body as Congress may by law provide, transmit within four days to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office. Thereupon Congress shall decide the issue, assembling within forty-eight hours for that purpose if not in session. If the Congress, within twenty-one days after receipt of the latter written declaration, or, if Congress is not in session, within twenty-one days after Congress is required to assemble, determines by two-thirds vote of both Houses that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice President shall continue to discharge the same as Acting President; otherwise, the President shall resume the powers and duties of his office.

Section 1. The right of citizens of the United States, who are eighteen years of age or older, to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of age.

Section 2. The Congress shall have the power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. Rights not Assigned Over the years, the powers of the 10th amendment have been effected and altered by two specific clauses:
Commerce Clause: "The Congress shall have power...To regulate Commerce with foreign nations, and among the serveral states and with Indian Tribes.
This clauses states that Congress can regulate interstate and foreign commerce.
Necessary and Proper Clause: "The Congress chall have power... To make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution the foregoing powers vested by the Constitution in the Government of the United States, or in any department or office thereof."
This clause gives Congress power to make any new laws that are "necessary and proper" for it to carry out its business. Court Cases Gibbons v. Ogden(1824)-Main Issue: Interstate Commerce
Both Gibbons and Ogden were granted rights to to navigate the waters of New York. Gibbons steamboats were licensed by the federal government, while Ogden was granted a monopoly by the state of New York. Gibbons and Ogden find themselves competing against one another, and the issue is brought to court.
The court rules in favor of Gibbons, ultimately saying that the federal government triumphs over the states in issues of commerce
The court ruled in favor of Gibbons and the federal government because commerce is to be regulated by a single authority, in order to have uniformity with interstate commerce. Gibbons v. Ogden is the main court case that directly relates to the 10th amendment. This case weakened the power of state governments and today their powers continue to become less.
When issues arise, such as environment and business, the question is always: Who has the power to regulate this? The main argument for states is that they are granted powers by the 10th amendment to control aspects of the government that are not assigned federally. However, over time this amendment has been weakened.
The founders original intent of the 10th was to prevent the federal government from becoming too powerful, but overtime the Supreme Court and the people themselves have allowed Congress to have a much greater influence in our country. Text Section 1: The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.

Section 2: The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. Meaning The 15th amendment is a Civil War amendment that was ratified on February 3, 1870. It granted African American men the right to vote. Section 1. All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.

Section 2. Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each State, excluding Indians not taxed. But when the right to vote at any election for the choice of electors for President and Vice President of the United States, Representatives in Congress, the Executive and Judicial officers of a State, or the members of the Legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such State, being twenty-one years of age, and citizens of the United States, or in any way abridged, except for participation in rebellion, or other crime, the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the number of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens twenty-one years of age in such State.

Section 3. No person shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress, or elector of President and Vice President, or hold any office, civil or military, under the United States, or under any State, who, having previously taken an oath, as a member of Congress, or as an officer of the United States, or as a member of any State legislature, or as an executive or judicial officer of any State, to support the Constitution of the United States, shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the same, or given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof. But Congress may, by a vote of two-thirds of each House, remove such disability.

Section 4. The validity of the public debt of the United States, authorized by law, including debts incurred for payment of pensions and bounties for services in suppressing insurrection or rebellion, shall not be questioned. But neither the United States nor any State shall assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the United States, or any claim for the loss or emancipation of any slave; but all such debts, obligations and claims shall be held illegal and void.

Section 5. The Congress shall have power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article. The 14th Amendment is a Civil War Amendment. It granted citizenship to all persons born or naturalized in the United states. It banned states from denying any person life, liberty or property without due process of law. It also banned states from denying any person equal protection under the law and gave equal protection of the law in all states.
The intention of the amendment was to grant freed slaves the same legal rights as other citizens in the United States. The 14th Amendment is quite broad. It establishes the rights of the citizens of the United States and has been present in may popular Supreme Court Cases.
In the court case Plessy v. Ferguson, the court claimed that segregation was constitutional but in Brown v. Board of Education, the ruling was overturned. Since then, the 14th amendment has truly served to protect people's rights.
The 14th Amendment was intended to protect the rights of the freed slaves and their descendants. Today, it protects the right of citizenship in general by prohibiting a state from depriving any person to their rights of life, liberty, or property without due process of law.
Ultimately, this amendment establishes the just ruling and legal process of our country. Supreme Court Cases Plessy v. Ferguson(1896): Homer Plessy sat in a "White" railroad car instead of a "Colored" one. Even though he was only 1/8th black, Plessy was still taken to jail when he refused to give up his seat.
The court ruled that segregation was constitutional.
The ruling initiated the idea of "equal but separate accommodations for the white, and colored, races." Precedent Case
Dred Scott v. Sandford(1857): Scott was born a slave. His owner brought him to a free state, where he married and eventually had a child. Scott went back and forth from slave to free states throughout his years of ownership. When his master died, Scott tried to obtain freedom for him and his family.
The court stated that, as a person of African ancestry, Scott was not a citizen of the United States and therefore had no right to sue in federal court. Other Cases:
Gitlow v. New York(1925)- Main Issue: Guarantee of 1st Amendment rights via the 14th Amendment
Mapp v. Ohio(1961)- Main Issue: Right to privacy
Baker v. Carr(1962)- Main Issue: Equal Protection
Gideon v. Wainwright(1963)- Main Issue: Rights of the accused
Griswold v. Connecticut(1965)- Right to marital privacy
Wisconsin v. Yoder(1972)- Main Issue: Due process of law and equal protection
Miller v. California(1973)- Main Issue: Freedom of expression and how it is applied through the 14th Amendment
Rowe v. Wade(1973)- Main Issue: Due Process of Law, Right to Privacy
UC Regents v. Bakke(1978)- Main Issue: Equal protection clause
Webster v. Reproductive Health Services(1989)- Main Issue: Equal rights
Planned Parenthood v. Casey(1992)- Main Issue: Due Process Clause
Lawrence v. Texas(2003)- Main Issue: Due Process Clause
Gratz v. Bollinger and Grutter v. Bollinger(2003)- Main Issue: Affirmative action for college admissions. Brown v. Board of Education(1954): Brown's daughter had to walk a mile to school everyday because she couldn't go to the white school that was only seven blocks away. Brown tried to enroll his daughter in the white school but was turned down because of their race.
The court overturned the Plessy v. Ferguson ruling and decided that segregation in public schools is unconstitutional.
Segregated schools violated the 14th Amendment
Chief Justice Warren stated that "Nothing can make racially segregated schools equal under constitution because segregation is always unequal, the separation of groups marks the ... separated group as inferior." Supreme Court Cases Guinn v. United States(1915)- Struck down the grandfather clause because it descriminated against African Americans.
The state of Oklahoma responded to this ruling by creating a 1916 Voting Registration Law
Lane v. Wilson(1939)- Struck down Oklahoma's Voting Registration Law which was another way to discourage and prevent African Americans from registering to vote Although African Americans have been granted the right to vote since 1870, their rights have not always been protected.
For years many states, especially the South, had poll taxes and a grandfather clause that made it nearly impossible for blacks to vote and register to vote.
Over time, and through court cases, racial laws regarding voting have been overturned. It took many years and our nation is still working on this discrimination, but overall, today the 15th Amendment and its benefits are present in our country. Protections Court Cases Miranda v. Arizona: Ernesto Miranda wasn't told that he could have an attorney present during questioning. He was also not told that he had the right to remain silent. Miranda confessed about a crime that was irrelevant to his arrest and ultimately he was convicted because of his confession.Protection against self-incrimination; Now law enforcement tell people these five basic things when arrested (Miranda warning):
They have right to remain silent
They have the right to talk with an attorney before they are questioned
They can have an attorney present while being questioned
They can have a court appointed attorney if they cannot afford a private one
Anything they say can be used against them in court Heart of Atlanta Motel v. United States: The motel refused to service African Americans. When tried in court, the owner claimed that it was his 5th Amendment right to operate his business as his wishes. The Court ruled that they were not violating his 5th Amendment rights because Congress has the right to prohibit discrimination with the Interstate Commerce Clause. Views Today Court Cases Cont... Barron v. Baltimore: John Barron was a successful port owner in Maryland. The city he operated in started to turn its streams into roads and building projects. Eventually Barron's business was ruined because the port were not able to be used.
Barron's claimed that the 5th Amendment states that private property cannot be taken for public use without just compensation.
The court ruled that the city was at fault, but the matter was a state issue and therefore there was not much the court could do on the federal level. In court systems today it is commonly known to "plead the fifth" or "take the fifth," which allows people to remain silent and not answer the question presented to them.
The Amendment has become more clear over time.Because of the court case Miranda v. Arizona, people are fully aware of their rights at the time of being arrested.
This Amendment was established to give citizens of the United States a fair trial, and today the 5th is present during every arrest, interrogation and court case hearing across the country. A well-regulated militia, being necessary to the security of a free state, the right of the people to keep and bear arms, shall not be infringed. Initially meant for militia to bear arms to protect from foreign invaders. Congress regulates interstate sale, states can restrict arms, moved from militia use to private gun ownership. The three main ways it could be interpreted is that is no longer valid because there is no longer a militia, that the basic right to bear arms is a right on the same level as right to free speech, or that the middle ground of protects the individual but is restricted to a certain length. U.S. v Cruikshank (1876)
An armed white mob attacked and killed over one hundred blacks because of an intense election. The white ringleaders including Cruikshank were convicted with the federal Enforcement Act of 1870. It made that the right to bear arms not to be infringed upon by Congress, but was not affected by a private individual or state.

United States v Lopez (1995)
Lopez carried a concealed gun to school and was charged under Texas law with having a gun on school grounds, then the state charges were dropped, then the federal govt. charged Lopez with violating the Gun-Free School Act. Ruled that having a gun at school is not an economic activity and that the law is a criminal statute that has nothing commerce.  Search The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized. Made to protect privacy. It requires authorities to have a specific reason to search belongings. Needs probable clause signed by a judge. The amendment was made in response to the British making unreasonable searches on the colonists by British law enforcement. Weeks V. United States
Law enforcement searched Weeks house and took papers that were used as evidence to convict him of transporting lottery tickets through the mail and without a search warrant. The evidence could not be used and any searches without warrants were unconstitutional and any evidence obtained through an unwarranted search could not be used. This created the exclusionary rule.
Mapp V. Ohio (1961)
Law enforcement in Cleveland got a tip that a bombing case was hiding in Dollree Mapp’s house. Police searched Mapp’s house unwarranted and handcuffed Mapp. No bombing case was found, but they did find pornographic material. Mapp was arrested to having the pornographic material. The court ruled that Mapp could not be arrested for having pornographic material because it was gained illegally. This specifically applied to the states that the exclusionary rule applies to states. Other rights The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people. States that all other rights not spelled out in the constitution are retained by the people. Protects all basic or natural rights not specifically noted in the constitution. Griswold v. Connecticut (1965)
A Planned Parenthood opened up on Connecticut, and the Executive Director Griswold was fined because Connecticut law made it illegal to give information, instruction, and married couples to prevent contraception. It was ruled in favor of Griswold because Connecticut law interfered with the right to marital privacy. The ruling made the right of privacy protected by the 9th amendment.
  Income Tax The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever sources derived, without apportionment among the several States, and without regard to any census or enumeration. It gives Congress the ability to levy individual income taxes. The federal govt. can tax people based on how much they make according to the census so that the more a person makes, the more they are taxed, and the less a person makes, the less they are taxed.
  Brushaber v. Union Pacific Railroad
Brushaber, a stockholder in the Union Pacific Railroad, filed an injunction to stop the Union Pacific Railroad to from taxing income taxes. The plaintiff believed that the income tax violated the Fifth Amendment. It was ruled in favor of the Union Pacific Railroad and that, the 16th amendment was not unconstitutional and that income tax does not have to be apportioned among states according to population.
  Two terms maximum for president Section 1. No person shall be elected to the office of the President more than twice, and no person who has held the office of President, or acted as President, for more than two years of a term to which some other person was elected President shall be elected to the office of the President more than once. But this Article shall not apply to any person holding the office of President when this Article was proposed by Congress, and shall not prevent any person who may be holding the office of President, or acting as President, during the term within which this Article becomes operative from holding the office of President or acting as President during the remainder of such term.
Section 2. This Article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of three-fourths of the several States within seven years from the date of its submission to the States by the Congress. Limits the president for two terms maximum. Originally a precedent set by George Washington for a president to only serve two terms, Franklin Roosevelt broke that precedent by being elected four times to presidency. The amendment was made in his aftermath. Says what to do about filling the spot when a president dies, or incapable of duty.
-Vice president fills in for president, then Speaker of the house fills in for him
-if the case is incapacity, either the president can go to Congress, or if the president is in bad shape, but still thinks he's ok, the Vice President can disagree with him and take the spot he appeals to Congress, who then vote This is allowed Gerald Ford to climb to the presidency without being elected.
-Twice this was almost used for Ronald Reagan -The national voting age was moved to 18 for all election
-The Federal government can enforce this This amendment was made in part to overwrite the outcome of Oregon vs. Mitchell where it was decided that the states could decide their own voting age, thus making the extension to the Voting Rights Act making the voting age 18, noneffective Furman inadvertently killed someone while committing a felony and was sentenced to execution, which he claimed to be a cruel and unusual punishment. The 8th Amendment bans this type of punishment. The death penalty then became ineffective. Furman v. Georgia (1972): Gregg was convicted of armed robbery and murder and was sentenced to death. Though the results of the previous case claim the death penalty to be invalid, it is not always unconstitutional. So in this case in which the facts met the requirements, Gregg received the death penalty. Gregg v. Georgia (1976): Women’s Right to Vote (1920) Cecil and Sally Reed, divorced, each wanted to be administrator of their son’s estate after he passed and Cecil took the name, while Sally took it to court to challenge the law. The court unanimously decided that the different treatment of men and women was unconstitutional.

Significance: the SC upheld claim of gender discrimination for 1st time Reed v. Reed (1971): Craig v. Boren (1976): Significance: established “medium scrutiny” standard for determining gender discrimination Curtis Craig(licensed vendor under 21) challenged a law that prohibited sales of "nonintoxicating" beer to men under age 21 and women under 18. 1848
Elizabeth Cady Stanton & Lucretia Mott Seneca Falls Convention: Convention to fight for women's rights (Women's suffrage) Defined by the Declaration of Sentiments (Based on the Declaration of Independence)
300+ women and even 40 men (including Frederick Douglass, a former slave)
Seneca Falls Declaration signed by 100 men and women Abolition of Poll Tax (1964) -Prohibits poll taxes (paid to vote) in federal elections
-Poll taxes were used to keep African Americans from voting Harman v. Forssenius (1965) Breedlove v. Suttles (1951) Harper v. Virginia State Bd. of Elections (1966): Virginia voters challenged whether a poll tax is constitutional
The case was dismissed (relied on Breedlove v. Suttles) Women's suffrage movement: long struggle for women's rights
19th Amendment:
- granted women the right to vote
- prohibits any United States citizen to be denied their right to vote based on their sex
- ratified August 18, 1920
- Ended women's suffrage movement
- Seneca Falls Conevntion Guns Rights of Accused Punishment Citizenship Rights Black Vote President Disability 18 year old vote For your Enjoyment Amber Ferrari Avery Knizek Zach Caldwell Avery Olivia Copti Amber Amber Avery Olivia Zach Olivia Zach Avery Amber Zach Zach Amber Zach Zach
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