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US History

8th grade US History: French and Indian War to the War of 1812
by

Andrew Lewis

on 28 September 2016

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Transcript of US History

US History
Chapter 5:
American Colonies in the British Empire

Section I:
The French and Indian War
Background
British set up on the coast
France settled along the St. Lawrence River
Both claim the continent
Fur trade and natural resources
Advantages
Strong and unified government
Forts at strategic points
Well-trained army, in good with the indians
Disadvantages
Vast territory
Widely scattered, sparsely populated
Advantages
Fifteen times the population of New France
Iroquois support, strongest confederation of Indian tribes
Naval superiority
Disadvantages
Lack of unity, little cooperation between colonies
Three Early Conflicts
And...
Nothing really changes
Queen Anne's War
And...
Ends in a stalemate
King George's War
And...
British Navy and Colonial militia take Fort Louisbourg
Major fort in Canada, general pain in the neck for colonies
Britain gives it back to France, colonists displeased
Really don't have any lasting significance
Build to the French and Indian War (Seven Years War)
1754-1763
French
attack the unfinished fort, finish the fort, name it
Fort Duquesne
Washington
defeats a small
French
force; larger force lurking nearby
Washington
falls back and builds a small fort (
Fort Necessity
)
Series of mistakes forces
Washington
to surrender
After negotiating with the
French
,
Britain
takes action
Albany Plan of Union
Colonists
and
British
concerned about the
Indian
threat
Iroquois
to join
French
?
June 1754- Albany, New York
Persuade the
Iroquois
to join the
British
Albany Congress adopted a plan of union
Benjamin Franklin
Albany Plan of Union
Creation of a grand council, delegates from all
colonies
Power to raise an army, build forts, govern Indian affairs
First attempt to unify the
colonies
Colonies
and
Britain
reject the plan
1756- A Worldwide Conflict
War on three continents
North America
Europe
Asia
William Pitt - British Sec. of State
Energetic leader
Puts
Britain
on the offensive
Promotes younger generals
More active role for
colonial
soldiers
French
forts begin to fall
Fort Duquesne
- 1758
Renamed
Fort Pitt
Brits
begin to plan to capture
Quebec
Battle of Quebec
Quebec
- strongest city of
New France
Seemingly invincible
General John Wolfe
- Commanding the
British
Daring plan, scale cliffs, occupy the Plains of Abraham
Marquis de Montcalm - French Commander
Ambush succeeds;
Wolfe
and
Montcalm
mortally wounded
French
surrender
Quebec
Quebec
was the end of the
French
War continues in Europe until 1763
Treaty of Paris (1763)

France
gives up her claim to everything East of the Mississippi
Keep New Orleans
Britain
gets Canada, Florida
Louisiana Territory given to Spain
Section II:
Conflict over New British Policies
Britain: the most powerful nation in the world
Large territorial gains, from India to the Americas
Huge war debt, population pressures in the colonies
Colonial America
allowed too much freedom, half-hearted effort in the war
Britain
tightens grip with new policies
Closing
Western America
After the war,
colonists
look to expand west
French
recognize the end of the war,
Indians
don't
Pontiac- Ottawa
chief, wants to end the entrance of white man
Captures forts and generally terrorizes settlers
Put down by
British
, take steps to prevent expansion
Proclamation of 1763
Banned
colonists
from going west of the Appalachians
Meant to protect traders and settlers,
British
not sure what to do with the West
Settlers asked to leave, traders allowed with official licenses
Colonists
offended, fought for that territory, believe
Britain
is violating charters
Quartering Act
Britain
leaves 10,000 troops in
America
, meant to put down Indian uprisings and enforce
British
policies
Britain
suffering from debt, trying to cut costs
Quartering Act of 1765
Colonists
to house troops
barracks, houses, stables, taverns, unoccupied buildings
Colonists
outraged, extra expense
Navigation and Trade Acts
Controlled trade between
colonies
and foreign countries
Writs of assistance
Previous attempts had failed, weak
Colonists
ignore them, smuggling rampant
Very general search warrants, very powerful
Search for smuggled goods, daylight hours
Unlimited authority, private property
Colonists
very upset
Taxes
Colonies
paying taxes to
colonial governments
Not required to pay taxes to
Parliament
Sugar Act
In order to protect the colonies
Placed duties on items
sugar, molasses, coffee, silks, and indigo
Cracks down on smuggling
Stamp Act
Did not tax anything traded, daily activities in the colonies
Official stamp on items taxed
Legal docs, newspapers, calendars, and playing cards
Widespread resistance
Opposition from the Colonists
Not objecting to the amount, don't believe
Parliament
can legally tax
Desire for representatives in
Parliament
,
Parliament
claims they are already represented
"No taxation without Representation"
Sons of Liberty
Organized colonists protesting British policies
John Adams, Patrick Henry, John Adams
Very vocal, sometimes violent
Stamp Act Congress
Delegates from nine colonies, New York
Petitioned King George III, stated loyalty
Ignored, respond in boycott
The Townshend Acts
Passed in 1767
Taxed glass, paper, lead, and tea
Stepped up efforts against smuggling
Broadened writs of assistance and brings troops into major cities
Just another log on the fire
Boston Massacre
March 5, 1770
Culmination of building conflict between troops and civilians
Harassment on both sides
Citizens turn into an angry mob
Armed with clubs, rocks, anything they could find
Crowd rings the town bell
People pour into the town center
Single guard being attacked at the customhouse
Soldiers come to his aid, verbally and physically assaulted
Captain Thomas Preston
commanding
Crowd advancing, taunting the troops
Yelling "Fire!"
Confusion as to what happened next
Shots ring out, 5 civilians killed
Preston and his men arrested
John Adams defends the soldiers
Preston cleared of all charges
Two branded on the hand, others acquitted
Parliament
repeals duties on everything except tea
Too little, too late
Tea Act of 1773
Gives the British East India Company a monopoly in the colonies
Colonial merchants
not able to compete with the low prices
Infuriates the
colonists
Boston Tea Party-
Sons of Liberty
The Intolerable Acts
British
angered by the "Tea Party", act of defiance
Intolerable Acts - 1774
Designed to punish Massachusetts
Closes Boston harbor
Beefed up Quartering Act
Lose the right to government, ignored by
colonists
Tea Act of 1773
Quebec Act of 1774
Meant to punish Massachusetts
About a million things wrong with it
Allowed
French
law in civil cases
Extended
Quebec
, feared end of Western expansion
Favored
French
law and Roman Catholicism
Section IV:
Colonies Unite for Action
Liberty or Death
There is no retreat, but in submission and slavery!... The war is inevitable - and let it come!... Gentlemen may cry, peace, peace - but there is no peace. The war is actually begun. The next gale that sweeps from the North will bring to our ears the clash of resounding arms! Our brethren are already in the field! Why stand we here idle? What is it that gentlemen wish? What would they have? Is life so dear, or peace so sweet, as to be purchased at the price of chains and slavery? Forbid it, Almighty God! I know not what course others may take; but as for me, give me liberty or give me death!
The Intolerable Acts
Discontent spreads across the
colonies
Concerned for their liberties
Virginia House of Burgesses
Calls for day of fasting and prayer
Royal governor dissolves the house
Members call for general colonial congress
The First Continental Congress
September 5, 1774
50 delegates from 12 colonies
Carpenter's Hall, Philadelphia
All opposed to the Intolerable Acts
However...
Divided on what action to take on the
British
Some urged peace, others action
Galloway's Plan of Union
Plan to remain a part of
British Empire
Britain
and
Colonies
co-equal
British Parliament
and
Colonial Parliament
work together
Defeated by one vote
Pass the Declaration of Rights and Grievances
Voiced their objections of actions by
Parliament
"unjust, and cruel... unconstitutional... most dangerous and destructive of American rights."
Continental Association
Pledged not to import any goods from
Britain
Pledged not to export any goods to
Britain
Refused to participate in
English
slave trade
George III
Colonists
believe that
Parliament
will repeal Townshend Acts
Mistaken,
Parliament
seeks to force
colonies
to submit
"The die is now cast; the Colonies must either submit or triumph; I do not wish to come to severer measures, but we must not retreat."
Colonists prepare for conflict
Begin stocking up arms and ammunition
Minutemen - colonists ready to fight in a moment's notice
General Thomas Gage
Hears of a stockpile near Concord
Ordered to destroy it
Arrest Samuel Adams and John Hancock
Night of April 18, 1775
Paul Revere's midnight ride
Spreads the alarm
Lexington
70 minutemen vs. 400 British soldiers
Shots ring out
8 minutemen dead, 10 wounded
Concord
Troops destroy stockpiles
Minutemen waiting for them, 14 Brits dead
Retreat to Boston, minutemen pick them off
Lose 273 soldiers
Revolutionary War breaks out, spread quickly among the colonies
Neither side wants or is prepared for it
Chapter 6: Independence for the Colonies
Section I:
Moving Toward Independence
Colonel Henry Knox
25 year old book seller
Hauls Sixty-tons of artillery to Fort Ticonderoga to Boston
47 days over mountains, snow, and ice
Growing resentment toward
Britain
Colonists
preparing for action
However...
No unanimous decision for independence
Still remain loyal to the Empire
Want the full rights of Englishmen
Second Continental Congress
Philadelphia- May 10, 1775
Olive Branch Petition
Letter to the king
Preserve their rights as Englishmen
Not hopeful, prepare for war
Congress takes control of the army, asks for supplies from the colonies
Continental Army-
George Washington
commanding
George III rejects it
Peace to be restored when Colonies submit
Britain cuts off trade, refuses to protect the colonies
Colonial ships subject to capture
Ethan Allen and the Green Mountain Boys
Decide to take Ft. Ticonderoga and Crown Point
Strategically placed forts
Takes both with the help of
Benedict Arnold
Prevents the
British
from coming down the Hudson River
Hotbed for conflict
Patriots take Bunker and Breed's Hill
Dig trenches
British
launch three assaults on the hills
First two fail, heavy
British
casualties
Third-
colonists
out of ammunition
British Blockade
Prevented any trade of weapons and supplies between colonies
Addition of Hessian mercenaries to British forces
Canadian Invasion
Colonies hope to convince Canada to join them
Canadians were French, never liked the
British
Suffered the same injustices
They don't,
American
forces start to move North
Schyler's
Forces
Arnold's
Forces
However...
Things don't go to plan
Schuyler
becomes ill
Arnold's
forces are slowed down because weather
Don't meet up until late December
The Attack
Staged during a snowstorm, New Year's Eve
Massive failure, 1/3 of the troops captured
Montgomery
killed,
Arnold
wounded
Pull back and never attack Canada again
Freeing Boston
Winter 1775-1776
Section II:
Debating Independence
Biblical support
Read the following Bible verses and decide which side of the Revolution would use them to support their cause
Romans 13:1-6
2 Samuel 10:12
Titus 3:1-2
Galatians 5:13
Zechariah 9:8
Taking Sides
Loyalist
Remained loyal to

Great Britain
Political Reasons
Most disagreed with the Intolerable Acts, however...
Independence would lead to mob rule and tyranny
Economic Reasons
Britain was America's biggest trading partner
Cutting ties with Britain will hurt trade
Religious Reasons
The king is God's authority over the people
Rebelling against the king goes against God's law
Rebelled against Great Britain
Political Reasons
Believed their Representative government was at stake
Used to making their own laws, taxes, and elections
Saw British taxes as an infringement on liberty
Economic Reasons
New
British
policies hurt prosperous merchants
Want to trade whatever, whenever, and however
Religious Reasons
Wanted to preserve their religious freedom
Believed the Anglican Church was sinful and corrupt
British
might force them to join the Church
John Locke
English Political Philosopher
Oxford educated
"Social Contract"
People are basically reasonable and moral, but selfish
Natural Rights: Life, Liberty, and Property
Two Treatises of Government
Governments are formed to protect the natural rights
Government must have limited power, not an absolute monarchy
Government has an obligation to the people it governs
If it acts against the interests of the people, the people can overthrow the gov't
Neutral
Remaining colonists do not choose a side
Business reasons, living in remote areas
Quakers and Moravians- Pacifists
Thomas Paine and Common Sense
Englishman living in the colonies
Advocate of deism and the Enlightenment
America = a land of opportunity and less poverty
Builds a case for American separation from
Britain
Notes the actions of
Parliament
and the king, unfit to rule the colonies
"Common Sense" for the colonies to separate from
Britain
Sells thousands of copies
Convinces many of the need for independence
Probably the most influential political tract of the Revolution
http://www.loeser.us/flags/revolution.html
Declaring Independence
Continental Congress already taking steps towards Independence
Created an
American
Navy
Purchased war supplies
Welcomed unofficial French aid
June 7, 1776
Richard Henry Lee of Virginia
"these United Colonies are, and of right ought to be free and independent states"
Committee of five men, write a declaration
July 2, 1776
Declaration of Independence
Primarily the work of Thomas Jefferson
All delegations voted for it... except New York's
July 4, 1776
Congress approved the Declaration of Independence
Section III:
Battling for Independence
Declaration of Independence Questions

1. John Locke wrote about the natural rights of man including the right to life, liberty, and property. Why did Thomas Jefferson change property to the pursuit of happiness in the Declaration text?
2. Even though many of the grievances listed in the Declaration of Independence resulted from acts of Parliament, why would the founders have addressed all of them to King George III?
3. The original draft of the Declaration had admonitions against the British people. Why do you think that those were left out of the final version?
Washington's Action
Boston is now secure in the hands of the colonists
April 1776-
Washington
moves south to New York
Believe New York would be the next target
July 1776- 34,000
British
troops brought to New York
Trouble in New York
Washington
outnumbered 4 to 1
Couldn't defeat them, but could outmaneuver
British General Howe
forces
Colonial army
to flee Long Island
Seems to be no escape, but...
Alexander McDougall
Fleet of fishing boats, rowboats, and sailing ships
Ferry the army across the Hudson River to Manhattan Island
Make a stand at the Battle of Harlem Heights, hold their ground
Leads most of his troops across the Hudson to New Jersey/Pennsylvania
Trenton and Princeton
General Howe
and his troops settle in for the winter
Sends troops to Trenton to watch
Washington
Colonial army
hasn't won a major battle in seven months
Morale is low and enlistments are about to expire
Washington
desperate for a victory
December 24, 1776- Christmas Eve
Washington
and his men cross the icy Delaware River
Surprise
Hessian soldiers
at Trenton, capture 900 men
Charles Cornwallis
sent with a large force to confront
Washington
Washington
outsmarts
Cornwallis
, marches for Princeton
Takes out a small
British force
, headquarters at Morrisville
Victory at Saratoga
British
forces believed a show of force would end rebellion
1777- The
British
go on the offensive
General Burgoyne
to take his men south to New York
General Howe
to move north from New York
General St. Leger
, travel down the St. Lawrence River
All three are to meet up at Albany to cut off New England from the Middle/Southern colonies
Several disastrous mistakes
General Howe
doesn't move up the Hudson
Defeats
Washington
twice and then winters in Philadelphia
St. Leger
makes some progress, however...
Militiamen
tougher than expected
Army made up of Indians and
British
, Indians tough to control
Benedict Arnold plants rumors about American strength
Indians start deserting
St. Leger's forces crippled, retreats to Lake Ontario
Burgoyne
recaptures Fort Ticonderoga, however...
Progress slowed by
colonial
measures
Runs short of supplies, horses, and oxen
Burgoyne
sends out a foraging party, 700 men
Hear of a stockpile in Vermont
Burgoyne's
troops are met by a force of
1500+
Foraging party captured along with a rescue party
Two options for
Burgoyne
Defeat the
Americans
Wait for a rescue
Chooses to attack the
Americans
near Saratoga
Suffers heavy casualties
Tries again three weeks later, suffers heavy losses again
Surrenders October 17, 1777
Battle of Saratoga
Results of Saratoga
Took one
British
army out of the war
Forced
Britain
to give up any hope of taking New England
British
now focused on the Southern colonies
Renewed hope in the
colonies
, France officially joins
Setbacks of 1777-1778
No improvement in living situations, supply problems
Winter in Valley Forge, Pennsylvania in the dead of winter
Baron Von Steuben
Colonial General Nathaniel Greene
Tries to solve the supply issues, doesn't improve
Congress cannot tax, no money for supplies
Unstable money values
Sir Henry Clinton
Takes over for
Gen. Howe
Use New York as a naval base
Washington
follows, tries to stop him
American efforts fail,
British
take New York
Washington
camps nearby
War in the West
War at Sea
British
,
Loyalist
, and Indian active in the West
Wyoming Valley and Cherry Valley, colonists massacred
Colonists
push the
British
back to Fort Niagara
Raids in the Ohio Valley
British Colonel Henry Hamilton
Paid bounties for
American
scalps
George Rogers Clark
Force of 175 men
Capture Kaskaskia and Vincennes
Early on, America had no navy
Privateers
- merchant vessels outfitted to fight
Taking on the
British Navy
- an almost impossible task
John Paul Jones
- most famous
American
naval officer
Bonhomme Richard
Section IV:
W
i
n
n
i
n
g

I
n
d
e
p
e
n
d
e
n
c
e
British

now focused on the South
Hoping to gain support from

Loyalists
Captures Savannah, Georgia and Charleston, S. Carolina
Hoping to regain everything up to the Hudson
General Gates
engages
Cornwallis
at Camden, SC
Gates
flees to Charlotte, leaves his men behind
Replaced by
Nathaniel Greene
, bleak situation
September 1780
Colonel Patrick Ferguson
Colonial soldiers
- lay down their guns or he would...
"lay waste to the countryside with fire and sword"
Kings Mountain, SC
October 7, 1780
Kill or capture
Ferguson's
force
Greene
splits up the army
Cowpens, SC and Greensboro, NC
British
failed to find
Loyalist
support
British

Surrender at Yorktown
Costly victory at Greensboro leaves
Cornwallis
weakened
Supply lines being harassed and raided, heads for the coast
Trusts the
British
Navy will provide supplies
Marquis de Lafayette
24 year old French volunteer
Only threat to
Cornwallis
British
not ready for what happens next
French fleet stationed at the West Indies
28 ships ready for action
British
don't expect this sort of force
Washington
slips out of New York, moves to trap
Cornwallis
Washington
,
Lafayette
, and French fleet traps
Cornwallis
at Yorktown
October 19, 1781-
Cornwallis
surrenders, formally ends the war
Treaty Negotiations
J. Adams
American Negotiators
Treaty of Paris
America
gains:
Independence
All lands east of the Mississippi
A
m
e
r
i
c
a

i
s
V
i
c
t
o
r
i
o
u
s
!
Results of the War
America is independent
Population growth/westward expansion
Increased thoughts of equality
Questioning state supported churches
Chapter 7:
Confederation and Constitution

The Colonies now free from the grasp of Great Britain
So.... What now?
Colonists don't want a powerful government
1776- Continental Congress gathers to decide on an improved system
Decide on a confederation
Articles of Confederation
Drafted by John Dickinson
One Congress, members elected yearly
Relies heavily on strong state gov'ts
More loyal to their states than the "United States"
Adoption of the
Articles

Before the
Articles
become law, they must be ratified by each state
Presented to the states in November 1777, however...
Takes 4 years to complete the process
After the war, states start to claim land to the west
Maryland refuses to ratify the
Articles
Congress should have the power to dispose of western lands
Afraid of being overpowered by larger states
Some objections follow
1.)
States don't want to give up their claim
2.)
Land spectators not able to make profits reselling the land
Compromise
1.)
2.)
Congress gains control of the land
"Public domain"
In return, each state, no matter the size, has an equal vote in Congress
3.)
Congress bases tax assesments on value of improved lands rather than population
Virginia holds out until January 1781
Maryland ratifies the
Articles
that month
US officially adopts the
Articles
March 1, 1781
Political Power Under the
Articles

Congress
Can
Raise an army
Declare War
Make treaties with foreign nations
Manage Indian affairs
Establish a postal service
Borrow and coin money
But there is a catch...
Congress
cannot
tax
Congress
cannot
tax
States

Can
States also coined their own money, dealt with countries directly, and could declare war
Control domestic and foreign trade
Act in economic affairs (debt, contracts, family affairs)
Hold the right to tax citizens
9/13 states must approve in order for a law to be passed
A change in the
Articles
requires 13/13
What are some advantages of the
Articles
?
Disadvantages?
Lasting Achievements
The
Articles
only last 8 years
Two pieces of legislation dealing with western lands
Northwest Ordinance of 1785
Starts at the boundry of Pennsylvania and Ohio
*p. 108
Townships
6x6 areas of land, 36 square miles
divided into 36 sections, 640 acres
15th section reserved for education
Land sold at auctions (min $1 per acre), must purchase at least one section
Brainstorming Questions
Why didn't Congress set a higher price?
What other methods could Congress have used?
What are some advantages/disadvantages?
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
Could have made more money, but wanted to provide affordable land for families
Many did, others couldn't afford it or didn't see the need, land companies buy up land
Congress needed the legal land title
Congress had to make treaties with the Indians
Hoping to prevent Indian uprisings
Provided government for the west
Divided into territories
governor
three judges
secretary
Appointed by Congress
Territorial legislature
requires 5,000 free white males
Population = 60,000
Eligible for statehood
Submit a constitution
Same powers and rights as the original 13
5 states
Additional notes
Freedom of Religion
Forbid slavery
Section II:
Weaknesses of Confederation

Administrative Weaknesses
No way of enforcing the law
No power to tax
No power to regulate trade
Competition with state coining
Poor Foreign Relations
Britain still controls forts to the west
Since America can't pay their debt, continuing their fur trade
Angered by poor treatment of Loyalists
Prevented effective sea trade
And
Cannot pay off debt to the French or Dutch
France refuses further loans
Ducth just want to be payed
An uneasy peace, still holds land in N. America
Threatened by American expansion
Urges Southwestern Indians to raid American territory
Dispute in port usage along the Mississippi
"Right of deposit"
Freedom to stockpile goods until ships come to transport them
Spain denying them that privilege
Results
John Jay

responsible for solving the issue
No one likes the result, Congress refuses to ratify it
America keeps the right of deposit at the cost of high tariffs
Discontent at Home
Summer 1786
Massachusetts farmers discontent
Low crop prices, paper money was worthless
Heavy taxes, Assembly not able to repay war debts
Shays' Rebellion
Disgruntled farmers start forming mobs
Daniel Shays
leads one group, heads to a federal armory
Massachusetts militia meets them and disperses the crowd
Rebellion pointed out the Weaknesses of the Articles
Washington is mortified, The States look "more contemptible"
Preparation for
C
h
a
n
g
e
1785
Delegates from Maryland and Virginia
Meet with G. Washington at his home
Discuss use of the Potomac River and Chesesapeake Bay
Very successful meeting, invite Pennsylvania and Delaware
Discuss commercial problems (tariffs, paper money, etc.)
Virginia calls for all the states to meet at Annapolis
Annapolis Convention - September 1786
Only five states show up, don't really solve any disputes
Three delegates ask the Confederation Congress to call a convention
Hoping for a better union
1787
Philadelphia Convention
Purpose: Revise the Articles of Confederation
Central government too weak, make it strong enough to govern the country
Only 12 men show up at first
Delegates from 7 states show up 11 days later
Barely a majority, begins on May 25
55 delegates attend, 12 states represented
Rhode Island sits out
Independence Hall
Washington elected as convention chairman
Keeps their activities secret, committing treason
Shields the document from public criticism
States more likely to ratify the document
Important Figures
Section IV
Building a New Constitution
Delegates realize the Articles could not be made effective
Construction of a whole new government
Begin writing a
Constitution
Document that describes how a government is to work and gives its basic laws
Points of Agreement
All agree that...
1.)
2.)
The United States need a more effective central government
Some feared a powerful government, some worried it wouldn't be powerful enough

All agree that the federal government should have certain powers to handle all the states

Division of powers to limit the federal government
The new government should be a republic
Elected officials govern the people
3.)
The government must have multiple branches
No one branch should be too powerful
4.)
The new government should protect the rights and properties of the people
However...
The delegates could not agree on how much power to give the government
Fear that some states would be more powerful than others
Disagreements over slavery and commerce (North vs. South)
Compromise
Delegates realize they must compromise on some issues
The Constitution is a "bundle of compromises"
The Great Compromise
The Commerce Compromise
The Three-Fifths Compromise
Principles of the Constitution
Written Law
Break up into three groups and discuss the following Compromises
The Great Compromise
The Commerce Compromise
The Three-Fifths Compromise
Your group will present the information to the class
Remember, your classmates notes depend on you, so be thorough!
The Government is based on written law
Constitution limits the powers of the nation's leaders
Meant to protect Americans from unconstitutional actions
Only an Amendment can change the Constitution
Major changes are rare
Gov't divided into three branches
Ensures no one branch holds too much power
Taken from the ideas of Montesquieu (French philosopher)
Makes the laws
Enforces the laws
Interprets the laws
Keep each of the three branches of the gov't from going beyond their authority
Gives each branch one or two powers that limit or check other branches
States acted as independent nations under the Articles
Federal System - divided powers between the national and state gov'ts
Section IV:
Success of the Constitution

September 17, 1787
Constitutional Convention signs the Constitution
Delegates go home and promote the new Constitution
Federalist
vs
Anti-Federalist

Supporters of the Constitution
Opposed the Constitution
9/13 states must ratify the Constitution before it goes into action
July 1788 - New Hampshire is the ninth
First elections held in 1789, George Washington unanimously named president
Completely new government, no working republic anywhere in the world
Assembles a group of advisors to help him with his responsibilities
The Cabinet
First order of business:
Government lacked the funds to run it
Levy taxes (impose and collect)
Repay debt (federal and state)
Create a national bank
Rebellion again?!
Excise tax on Whiskey
Westerners especially resent this tax
Summer of 1794 - rebellion breaks out
The Whiskey Rebellion
Washington asks Pennsylvania to sort it out
Washington calls for a force of 13,000 troops
Leads them to Pennsylvania, put down the rebellion
The first real test for the new Constitution
The United States and France
France undergoes a revolution of their own and establish a republic
Slightly different than the American Revolution...
Actually VERY different
Incredibly violent and brutal
Government was highly unstable
France now at war with Britain
To War or Not to War?
Washington issues a Neutrality Proclamation
The United States would be impartial to all foreign foes and avoid foreign wars
French ambassador Genet convinces twelve American privateers to join the French cause and attack British ships
Washington attempts to have Genet deported, ends up granting him asylum
John Adams
1797-1801
Much different than the last
Political parties develop and campaign for their candidates
Jefferson vs Adams
Adams never sought popularity
Difficulty living in Washington's shadow
The
X
Y
Z
Affair
American agents finally meet his three agents
Ask for a $250,000 bribe and $10 million loan for France
Adams refuses, presents the evidence to Congress
Renames the French agents as X, Y, and Z
Congress prepares to arm the country, builds its own navy
USS Constitution
British still seizing ships and the new French government was still bitter over the Jay Treaty
French begin raiding shipping lanes and capture 300 American sailors on a British ship, threatening to execute them and refuse to meet with the American ambassador
J. Adams tries to negotiate, French minister avoids them for nine months
Difficulties in the Presidency
The and Sedition Acts
Four laws designed to protect the country during war
Designed by Federalists to keep the Republican Party from gaining power
1.)
Naturalization Acts
Extended the time required to gain American citizenship
5 years to 14 years
Designed to keep immigrants from voting right away for the Republicans
2.)
The
Alien
Enemies Act and the
Alien
Act
Gave the president power to imprison or expel any "dangerous" foreigner during times of war or invasion
Purposefully vague
3.)
The Sedition Act
Anyone who said, wrote, or published anything false against the government or officials could be fined and imprisoned for two years
Republicans call it a violation of freedom of speech
The Disputed Election of 1800
John Adams runs again against Thomas Jefferson
Jefferson is named president
Charles Cotesworth Pinckney
Aaron Burr
Adam's Final Act
The Midnight Judges
Judiciary Act of 1801
Adams appoints fifty-eight judges the night before leaving office
Completely legal, needs the approval of the Senate
Marbury vs. Madison
William Marbury - one of Adams' appointments
Did not receive his commission before Adams left
New Secretary of State, James Madison, refuses to release it
Marbury sues for his job
The Court's Decision
First time a federal law had been declared unconstitutional
Judicial Review
Expands the court's power
Thomas Jefferson
1801-1809
Repealed the Judiciary Act of 1801
Many "midnight judges" never serve
Attempts to have two Federalist judges impeached
John Pickering- alcoholic and insane
Samuel Chase- not a great jurist and practiced partisan politics
Pickering is removed, but Chase stays put
Conquering the Barbary Pirates
The Tripolitan War
The Louisiana Purchase
The Lewis and Clark Expedition
Zebulon Pike
leads a second expedition
Two different trips
1st trip: Finds the source of the Mississippi River
2nd trip: Travels the Arkansas River, explores the Rocky Mountains, sighted Pike's Peak
Captured by the Spanish on the return trip, later released
Jefferson's Second Term
Re-elected in 1804 in a landslide victory
Drops Aaron Burr as vice president
Neutral Rights at Sea
France and Britain at war... again
American traders determined to make money by trading with both countries
British and French Actions
The Chesapeake Affair
Britain and France seizing American ships and cargo
Britain believes Americans were convincing British sailors to desert near the Chesapeake Bay
Jenkin Ratford- British deserter serving on the USS Chesapeake
British find out and confront the Chesapeake with the HMS Leopard
The Embargo Act of 1807
Declines to run for a third term
James Madison runs for the Democratic-Republicans and wins in 1808
1808-1817
James Madison
Jefferson's Secretary of State
Runs against Charles C. Pinckney
A difficult and frustrating presidency
Indecisive in war and peace
A Rocky Start
Great strain on trade, Congress offers to open trade with France and Britain
One condition: they must stop attacking American ships
Napoleon's foreign minister lifts the Berlin and Milan Decrees
However, signs a new order
Called for the confiscation of American ships in French ports
America begins trading with France, upsets Great Britain
Indian Stirrings
Spring of 1810
Frequent Indian attacks in Western Indiana Territory
Settlers blame the English and Canadians for the raids
Tecumsah
Shawnee chief
Organized tribes to the North and South into a Confederation
Hoped to halt Western Expansion
Tenskwatawa
"The Prophet"; religious leader
taught the abolition of alcohol
revival of the traditional way of life
Established by Tecumseh and the Prophet
Aided by the British, troops and supplies
War of 1812
Background
Tensions mounting between Britain and the US
British impressment of American sailors
America's neutral rights at sea being violated
British aiding Indian raids in the West
The War Hawks
Forty Congressmen (Western and Southern) form a coalition
Led by Henry Clay, later elected as Speaker of the House
The Hawks place their supporters on important committees
Denounced Britain and pushed for a declaration of war
Westerners still nervous
Want the British out of Canada
Blame them for surplus of grain (due to trade)
Henry Clay
1810
1815
1811
1812
1813
1814
Indian attacks begin in the Western US
Jan
Feb
Mar
Apr
May
June
July
Aug
Sept
Oct
Nov
Dec
Jan
Feb
Mar
Apr
May
June
July
Aug
Sept
Oct
Nov
Dec
Jan
Feb
Mar
Apr
May
June
July
Aug
Sept
Oct
Nov
Dec
Jan
Feb
Mar
Apr
May
June
July
Aug
Sept
Oct
Nov
Dec
Jan
Feb
Mar
Apr
May
June
Aug
July
Sept
Oct
Nov
Dec
Jan
Feb
Mar
Apr
May
June
July
Aug
Sept
Oct
Nov
Dec
Battle of Tippecanoe
British/US Relations Worsen
Britain angered by the Embargo Act of 1807
Respond by blockading the East coast, practicing impressment
Madison asks for a suspension of the Orders in Council in April 1812
Britain suspends the Orders in Council, June 16
An unfortunate series of miscommunications
Britain repeals the Orders in Council on June 23, takes three weeks to for new to reach the US
The US declares war in June 18
Beginning of War of 1812
Military Issues
Great Britain
Army- 244,000
Navy- 500 vessels
United States
Army- 6,700
Navy- 16 vessels
Financial Problems
1811- Congress voted against rechartering the National Bank
No bank to borrow from or transfer funds to pay for war supplies
Reduced trade cut tariff income, citizens refuse to buy war bonds
Poor Communication Networks
Career Accomplishments
Graduated from Princeton
Bell Ringer
Match the correct President with the following events
1.) The Louisiana Purchase
2.) The Whiskey Rebellion
3.) The XYZ Affair
4.) The Tripoltan War
5.) Judiciary Act of 1801

6.) The Midnight Judges
7.) The Chesapeake Affair
8.) Impressment
9.) Lewis and Clark's expedition
10.) Marbury vs. Madison

Few roads to the West
Blockade on the Coast
Difficult to move men and supplies
Congress calls out the state militia
Total of 100,000 men
Some states refuse to send men
American Generals
Most of the generals are older men
Had not fought actively since the Revolution
First year of fighting
was a disaster
America's plan:
Attack
Canada
Nearby and sparsely populated
Canadians
indifferent to
British
rule
America
hoping to find some support
US general
heads to
Ontario
to attack the
British
Surrenders
to a superior
British
force at Detroit
William Henry Harrison
Fails to capture Detroit
British
capture Chicago
Americans
move to take Niagara peninsula
The attack fails
Try again later, defeated again because...
New York militia
refuses to cooperate in the attack
Stood by and watched the attack fail
Results of 1812
British
: 1
Americans
: 0
Only success was at sea
USS Constitution
defeats the
Guerriere
USS United States
defeats the
Macedonian
Madison reelected to a second term
The War in the North
Fighting for the Great Lakes
Setting the Stage
Harrison
losing more land battles in the North
Realizes the
US
needs to control the Great Lakes
Oliver Hazard Perry
Spends a year preparing to win control of Lake Erie
Builds naval base to the South of Lake Erie
Local militias secure nearby outposts and shipyards
Builds two ships:
USS Lawrence
USS Niagara
Perry's
new ships ready for battle
Engage
British
ships on Sept 10
The
Lawrence
takes heavy damage, fires once more at the
British
Perry
rows over to the
Niagara
,
breaks the opposing line
An hour later,
Perry
wins the battle
The
British
abandon Detroit and the Northwest
Prepare for a full scale attack on the States
"We have met the enemy and they are ours!"
Invasions in the East
The British plan a Three Pronged Attack
The
British
defeat
Napoleon
and the
French
in Europe
Free to fight much harder in
America
Northeast
Chesapeake Bay
Mississippi Valley
British
mass their troops at
Montreal
Goals of the invasion:
Move down the Hudson River
Take New York City
Cut off New England from the rest of the states
And...
Americans defeated it in September at Plattsburg, New York
British
force successfully pushes into the Chesapeake Bay
Defeats the
militia
in Maryland, leaving the capital wide open
Madison
and the
Congress
flee to Virginia
6:00 pm that same evening, the
British
march into
Washington DC
Destroy every federal building but the Patent Office
Rain puts out the fires, Capitol building and president's house rebuilt
British
now launch a joint land/sea attack on Baltimore
Attack
Fort McHenry
, fail to destroy it
British
retreat
The third prong attack comes at New Orleans
Major General Andrew Jackson
Rushes from Baton Rouge to save the city
British
attack twice in January 1815
Jackson's
men successfully defend the city
Over two thousand casualties for the
British
The Battle of New Orleans
Biggest victory of the war for
America
Actually fought after the war was officially over
The Treaty of Ghent
Actually signed on Dec 24; "the Treaty of Christmas Eve"
Signed near Ghent in Belgium
John Quincy Adams- leads the American delegation
However...
The treaty didn't solve the problem that started the war
Neutral Rights at sea
Results of the War of 1812
1.)
2.)
3.)
4.)
5.)
6.)
The US gains respect from other nations
The war inspires nationalism
New heros emerge
Andrew Jackson
William Henry Harrison
America develops its own industry
Power struggle for colonies was ended
Napolean defeated in Europe
Britain defeated in America
The War affects political parties
Federalist party falls apart
Democratic-Republicans changing its stance
O, Say Can You See...
Dolly Madison
Saves two trunks worth of papers
Full length portrait of George Washington
French and Indian War to the War of 1812
Britain's power growing worldwide
American colonies enjoying a great deal of freedom
Leads Americans to believe they hold equal rights with British citizens
Great Britain
hoping for control of the Ohio Valley
French
believe it will threaten their fur trade
Some
Virginians
begin building a fort at the junction of the Allegheny and Monongahela Rivers (current day Pittsburgh)
A young
George Washington
is sent to protect them
Guns mounted on Dorchester Heights, March 4
British
leave March 17, sail for New York
About one thousand
Loyalists
go with them
vs.
Patriot
Prussian drill instructor
Trained the healthy
Instilled a sense of pride
B. Franklin
J. Jay
"I have not yet begun to fight!"
?Brainstorming Questions?
James Madison
Most influential figure of the convention
“Father of the Constitution”
Kept a diary of the convention, accurate account of the proceedings
Alexander Hamilton
Favored a strong central government
Little power for the states
Tried to solve financial problems
Realized the need for federal taxes
Missing Members
Thomas Jefferson
John Adams
Thomas Paine
Samuel Adams
Patrick Henry
John Hancock
Separation of Powers
Checks and Balances
A Federal System
National Gov't - power over items that concern the nation (war, common defense)
State Gov't - Health, safety, education, elections, and punishments for most crimes
 Favored the adoption of the Constitution

 Used the Federalist Papers to persuade others

• Newspaper essays written by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison

• Answered the most common objections to the Constitution
 Believed the Constitution gave too much power to the federal government

 State and local government should be supreme

Finances
Washington negotiates with the rebels, offers a group pardon
The governor refuses
Rebels refuse
The US opens trade with France and French colonies
Britain retaliates, begins seizing American ships and the practice of impressment
Seized American sailors and forced them to serve on British ships
The US agrees to limit trade with France and repay their debt to Britain
The Jay Treaty
John Jay sent to Great Britain for a peace mission
Agrees to limit trade with France and pay off their war debts
Britain agrees to abandon some forts, pay for seized ships, and open ports in the West Indies for trade
Did not solve anything
Ratified by the Senate to avoid war
Public portray Jay as a traitor worse than Benedict Arnold
Washington spends two terms as president
Prints his farewell address in the paper
Reassures people that he was not interested in a power struggle
Election of 1796
Never declares war, "quasi war"
Americans capture 90 French vessels by Fall of 1800
Only loses one ship
Adams wins the most electoral votes
Jefferson chosen as vice president
Both from different parties
Newly crowned emperor Napoleon eventually moves toward peace
America more powerful than expected
Adams makes peace in the Convention of 1800
No one supports his decision
Opposition to the Acts
Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
Republicans work to override the Acts
State laws that claimed the right of nullification
Believed states could decide if actions of the federal government were constitutional
Never put into effect, idea remains alive
Ballots do not state who was running for president
Jefferson and Aaron Burr receive the same number of votes
Conflict over who was running for president
After weeks of deliberating...
Appointing John Marshall
Chief justice of the Supreme Court resigns
Allows Adams to appoint a new chief justice
Chooses John Marshall of Virginia
Viewed the courts as the weakest point of the government
Hoped to strengthened and unify the court
Created sixteen new circuit judge spots
Cut number of court justices from six to five (avoids ties)
Appointed a number of justices of the peace
Marbury was entitled to the commission
Afraid that Madison would just refuse, make the Court look weak
Court rules in favor of Madison
America still in an uncertain position in 1800
British to the north in Canada
Spain to the south in Florida and Mexico
France to the west in the Louisiana territory
• First president to be inaugurated in Washington D.C.
• Democratic-Republicans take power
Election of 1800
Different philosophy than the Federalists
Stressed simplicity
Favored the common people
More power for state governments
Limited central government
Reversing Federalist Policies
Began by getting rid of Federalists who abused their power
Let the Alien and Sedition Acts expire
Reduced the size of the national army
Relied on state militias
Judiciary Act of 1801
• Kept the national bank

• Used presidential powers
Retaining Federalist Benefits
America challenged by several small Muslim countries in North Africa
Countries tried to extort money from ships sailing the Mediterranean
Refusal resulted in boarding, seizure of goods, and enslavement of the crew
Jefferson continues to pay tribute until the nations raise the tribute rates
When Jefferson refuses, the Barbary states declare war
Jefferson responds by sending two Navy commanders to deal with the terrorists
Resulting conflict named
1815 - combined British and American force settles the tribute dispute
Results in a greater respect for America
Westward Expansion
New Orleans a key port for western Americans
France now owns Louisiana and was no longer an ally
Napoleon Bonaparte in the midst of planning an invasion of North America
Jefferson sends an ambassador to France to buy New Orleans and East and West Florida
France had rejected their first offer
Series of events forces France to reconsider
Offers America the entire Louisiana Territory for $15 million
530 million acres at 2.8 cents per acre
Jefferson hesitant at first, but favored the growth of America
Senate approves the purchase
Takes possession of Louisiana on December, 20 1803
Jefferson sends his secretary, Meriwether Lewis, and military man William Clark to explore the newly added territory
Leave May 14, 1804 and return on September 23, 1806
Bring back information pertaining to the Missouri River, animals, plants, and the Native Americans
Jefferson asks Congress for an embargo in hopes it will convince Britain and France to stop
Embargo – A stop on all exports from the United States and imports from other nations
Angers the US population, encourages merchants to turn to smuggling, and damages the economy
Ends up hurting America more than France or Britain
Jefferson signs a new act before leaving office
Non-Intercourse Act
Somewhat lifts the embargo by allowing trade with nations other than France and Britain
British captain orders them to stop for a search
The Chesapeake refuses
The Leopard fires three times
Leaving three dead, eighteen wounded and the United States furious
French navy blockades British ports
Berlin and Milan Decrees
Stated that ships trading with Britain or obeying the Orders in Council could be seized
High profits encourage Americans to take risks
British blockade all French-controlled ports
Issues Orders in Council
Series of decrees that made it illegal for neutral ships to trade in Europe without a British inspection
Hoped to limit American/French trade
Jefferson's Secretary of State
Wrote nine of the ten Amendments making up the Bill of Rights
Known as the Father of the Constitution
Member of the Confederation Congress
Prophetstown
American General
Marched on Prophetstown in late 1811
Failed to capture Tecumseh
Became "hero of Tippecanoe"
William Henry Harrison
Problems with the British
America's Last King
Answer the following questions by reading the excerpt on p. 81
1. Who were America's last king and queen?
2. When did the king begin his reign? When did his reign end?
3. How many children he have?
4. What were the three goals the king had for his empire?
5. What was the nickname he earned for his court?
6. What was his greatest embarrassment?
7. What problem did the king encounter around 1788 to the end of his life?
Section III: The Breach Widens
Section I
Chapter 8:
Establishment of a New Government

Different Visions
Alexander Hamilton
vs.
Thomas Jefferson
Hamilton – Federalist
Believed in a strong federal government
Wanted an urban and industrial country
Jefferson – Anti Federalist
More state power
Wanted a rural, agricultural country
Both will play roles in shaping America
Hamilton's Plan
Read p. 143 and describe in your own words Alexander Hamilton’s four point plan for America’s financial program. After reading and summarizing, answer whether or not you believe Hamilton’s plan was good or not. Be sure to provide valid reasons!
Differing Views
Hamilton’s plan was not received well by all
Jefferson and his supporters expressed opposition to federal control of state debts and its involvement in banking
Federal banking favored northern industry, not southern agriculture
Compromise
Hamilton’s plan was put in place if the capital would be in the south
Washington DC placed between Maryland and Virginia
Division between ideas grew to the forming of two political parties:
Federalist
Party
Democratic
-Republicans
(Hamilton)
(Jefferson)
Other important achievements
Federal Court system formed
Bill of Rights becomes a part of the Constitution
Resolved border disputes with Spain
Section II:
Foreign Threats to the New Government
The Course of the War
France
successful in the early years of the war
Allied with
Native Americans
, used guerrilla warfare
Britain
uses European warfare
Braddock’s
Defeat
First goal of the
British:
Capture
Fort Duquesne
Send Gen.
Edward Braddock
with 2,500 troops to capture it
Slow moving force, meant the
French and Indians
could ambush them
Results in a defeat and
Braddock
wounded
1651-1733
Full transcript