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Africa

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by

Che Sokol

on 24 April 2014

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Transcript of Africa

World Medicines: Africa
References
Egypt
14 Existing Medical Papyri
Religion & Spirituality
Buckley, Anthony D.
Yoruba Medicine
. New York: Oxford UP, 1985.
Castillo, Daniel del. "Just What the Shaman Ordered." The Chronicle of Higher Education 49.13 (2002). General Reference Center GOLD. Web. 20 Jan. 2014.
Ehret, Christopher.
The Civilizations of Africa: a History to 1800
. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 2002.
Ngubane, Harriet.
Body and Mind in Zulu Medicine: An Ethnography of Health and Disease in Nyuswa-Zulu Thought and Practice
. New York: Academic Press, 1977
Nunn, J. F.
Ancient Egyptian Medicine
. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1996.
Ritner, Robert K. "Innovations and Adaptations in Ancient Egyptian Medicine." Journal of New Eastern Studies 59.2 (2000): 107-117.
Ritner, Robert K.
The Mechanics of Ancient Egyptian Magical Practice
. Chicago, Ill.: Oriental Inst. of the Univ. of Chicago, 1993.
Roach, John. ""Antibiotic" Beer Gave Ancient Africans Health Buzz." National Geographic News 16 May 2005: 1-2
Suso, Bamba, and Banna Kanute.
Sunjata
. London: Penguin, 1999.
Enemas and Intestinal Irrigation
Eye of Horus - Health & Protection
Mummification
Records & References
Ancient Mali
Spells & Curses
"Witchcraft"
Sundiata
Totems
Destiny
Prophesy
Sukulung Katuma
vs.
Sundiata the Lion King
Mansa Musa
Arabic Medicine & Science
(Islam in Africa)
NOW
Resurgence of traditional
medical treatments - psychological benefits & materia medica
Ancient Ghana
(Similar concepts to Ancient Mali)
Medicinal Clay
Holistic, no separation of supernatural & physical
Herbs & Plants
Ecological diversity, etc.
Ashanti & Yoruba
TROPICS
Diseases - ex: Malaria
Salt deficiency
"Germs" & "Worms" ->
Balance
Sonponno-The God of Smallpox
Civilization vs. Forest
Medicine Man & Pupils
NOT a shaman - seperate role
BALANCE
vs,
EXCESS
BODY BAGS
KUSH, NUBIA, & AXUM
KONGO
Great Zimbabwe
OTHER TECHNOLOGY
YORUBA: NUMBER SYSTEM, UNITS OF 20.
Large, dirty city
Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda, Burundi
Near the great lakes - rich soil*
Metallurgy & Ironmaking, tools
What we know: Archeology
Advanced Architecture
Inner vs. Outer Walls
Disease Prevention?
South Sotho, Zulu, Xhosa
Decline: Famine & Water Shortages
Witches & Witchcraft
Animals & their organs
Zulu Sangoma & Healing Ceremony
Integration of Traditional & Western Medicine & Thought
More definite Good vs. Evil
village healers vs. witch doctors
direct lines to ancestors & gods who teach them which herbs & medicines to use
Problems we encounter
Women and medicine, early gynecology
Southern African history - mainly ruins
Respect for traditional herbal treatments
Rhetorics of African medicines & treatments
-> Automatic bias
DATES
Surgical Practice
Circumcision - male and female
cataract surgery
aspirin
kaolin (diarrhea cure)
Skin treatments
powerful bacteriocidal activity
against gram-positive bacteria
inducing partial collapse
of the lung to treat pleurisy
--> inflammation of the lining around
the lungs
Caesarean Sections
antiseptic surgery & anesthesia
antibiotic beer
Nubian beer was also medicine, containing tetracycline, used to treat ailments such as urinary tract infections.
Catholicism, so Western medicine? (not really)
Surgical removal of bullet wounds anesthesia and antiseptics
psychic healers
significance of psychological health in treatment of disease
Safer area, fewer diseases than in tropics or deserts
Cockfights
Can the curse be lifted?
Only recent recognition of traditional African materia medica
gum-disease treatment,
a dressing for wounds,
prevented infections
None of the bones found show any sign of infection, and 90% show traces of tetracycline
Anatomy: ex. Hausa test for impotence
Autopsies!
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