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Gender And Education

AS SOCIOLOGY JAN EXAM
by

Isobel Mackay

on 23 January 2013

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Transcript of Gender And Education

Boys External Factors (Process outside of the school environment) Internal Factors Factors that happen within the school environment Internal Factors Those factors within the school environment External Factors (Those that happen outside of the school environment) Statistics Starting School: Girls Gender And Education 62% of girls can concentrate for 10 minutes, only 49% of boys can GSCE: Girls out preform boys by 10 points. AS/A Level: Pass rate for girls is 95.8% and 94% for boys Vocational Courses: Girls do better in every single vocational subject, even in construction (1 in 100 construction applicants are female), and they get more distinctions. Impact of feminism (Mcrobbie) She analysied magazines and found that, women were portrayed as.. 1970 Housewife Cooking Cleaning Marriage 1990 Independent Equality Career driven Society had started to expect women to become more. They broke free from patriarchy , and become more equal Changes In The Family Since 1970 there has been an increase in; divorces, single parent families, and an increase of cohabiting couples. 70% of marriages end in divorce 9/10 single parent families are headed by a female This shows that girls didn't have to be dependent on men anymore. They aspired to the workplace and accepted that they would only do well if they had educational capital (Bourdieu). They accepted meritocracy. Changes In Women's Employment The Equal Pay Act (1970) This made it illegal for an employer to pay men and women who do the same job differently. Flexible Working Eg maternity leave Pay Gap On average men make 16% more, compared to the 30% it used to be The Glass Ceiling Women can see the top positions, but cannot reach them. Girl's Changing Ambitions Sharp asked a group of women what their priorities were.. 1974 1990 Love Marriage Children Jobs Job Money Independence Housing Equal Opportunities Policies A belief in feminism has made teachers more aware that they need to challenge stereotypes in the classroom. They therefore try to treat both genders equally. Two social policies were introduced to promote equality. WISE: Women In Science and Engineering. This tried to push girls into boy domains National Curriculum Girls and boys had to do the same core subjects; maths, English, science. Girls had the opportunity to enter boy domains. Positive Role Models In recent years there has been a huge increase of female primary school teachers. This gives young girls aspirations to do well. However, most primary headteachers are male. Society may still be quite patriarchal GCSE And Coursework Gorrad Girls started to preform a lot better when coursework was introduced. This widened the achievement gap. Mitos And Browne Girls are better at coursework because they generally spend more time on work, they're better at time keeping, and they care about presentation. This is because during primary socialisation they're taught to be neat, tidy and patient. These skills are favoured by the education system. Teacher Attention Statistically girls and boys are given the same amount of attention by the teacher. However, girls for good behaviour, boys for bad behaviour. Swann Girls are more cooperative than boys, and boy's attention is for bad behaviour. Challenging Stereotypes In The Curriculum. Before it became illegal to discriminate between genders, textbooks used to show women amazed/shock by science. Weiner From the 1980's onwards, when the national curriculum was introduced, negative images in textbooks had been removed. This raised girls aspirations, and narrowed the achievement gap. Selection And League Tables Girls preform higher in the eduction system, therefore the schools select them. They can do this due to the Education Reform Act (1988- Margret Thatcher), which allowed competition.Better pupils- More funding+Better Ofsted league positions. Feminist View Of Girl's Achievement. Liberal Feminists They celebrate the fact that girls have made lots of progress in the education system due to social policies. WISE and the national curriculum are examples of these. They also took progress in public sphere. Radical Feminists They say that the education system serves the purpose of men, and that society is still very patriarchal, for example most headteachers are male, and the glass ceiling exists, women are subordinated in lower positions. Boys And Literacy According to the DFES (2007) boys performance can be largely due to their poor literacy and language skills. Boys poor literacy skills can be linked to the fact that their parents spend less time reading to them, as it is seen as a feminine activity. This puts them at a disadvantage from a younger age. Decline Of Traditional Men Jobs As more and more physical jobs (eg mining) have gone abroad, boys have started to go through an identity crisis. Working class boys become fatalistic (Sugarman). They join an anti-school subculture. They no longer have something to aspire towards. The Feminisation Of Education Sewell Schools prefer female qualities such as; attention to detail, dedication, and ambition. This puts females at an advantage, and makes males feel inferior. Shortage Of Male Primary Teachers Only 16% of male primary teachers are male. Pupils therefore lack role models, and vital stages of their education. They lose the chance of developing male qualities, such as competitiveness. Francis 2/3 of primary school pupils, don't think that the gender of the teacher is important. Laddish Subcultures Epstein Laddish subcultures saw hardworking boys, who didn't fit the stereotype as being gay, or effeminate (feminine). They also labeled them as being nerds. Laddish subcultures represent ant-school subcultures which result in educational failure. Compensatory Education National Literacy Strategy. Focused on getting fathers to read to boys so they don't see it as a feminine activity. Dads And Sons Tried to get dads to attend parent evenings, award events and sport events. Teacher Recruitment Tried to get more males to teach in high schools, and paid them more money as an incentive. Raising Boys Achievement Tried to teach in single sex schools, but it had mixed results, and was generally not effective. Subject Choice And Gender Identity Subject Choice Stables And Wikely Found that at.. GCSE: Girls generally chose; Economics, graphics, textiles etc Boys generally chose; Science, Engineering etc AS/A2: Girls generally chose; Sociology, Languages Boys generally chose; maths, physics etc Vocational: only 1 in 100 construction applicants are female, yet she is still more likely to get a distinction. Early Socialisation Boys are brought up in a way that teaches them to be active, this might be why they pick subjects like sport. Girls are brought up in a way that teaches them to be passive, this might be why they pick subjects like art. Gender Domains A gender domain is something that is seen as either typically male, or typically female to do. Eg Mending a car is seen as typically male, and raising a child is seen as typically female. Having a career that is typically male or female, is known as sex-typing Peer Pressure The choice of someone's subject may be influenced by whether or not your friends approve of it. Eg if a girl chooses construction, she might be labeled as being butch Eg if a boy chooses textiles, he might be labeled as effeminate. Peer pressure may make you conform to your gender domain Verbal Abuse Connell Found that there is a rich vocabulary of abuse, that allows dominant identities to exist. Eg, a male who doesn't fit the stereotypical image is labeled a gay. A girl who doesn't fit the stereotypical image is labeled a lesbian. Male Peer Groups Mac An Ghail Macho working class boys labeled hardworking class boys who didn't fit the stereotype as being dickhead achievers. The reason they did this was because of their insecurities and they felt unstable about their own futures due to job insecurity. The Male Gaze Male teachers and students look girl students up and down, and see them as sexual objects. They judge their appearance. The female who fits the stereotypical image, are seen as more female. This shows that patriarchal society still has an effect. This shows that masculinity is stronger than femininity. Teachers And Discipline Teachers expect boys, to act like boys. They use phrases like 'man-up' to enforce this. Askew And Ross When female teachers lose control of their class, they seek help from a male teacher. This again enforces that masculinity is stronger than femininity. Double Standards Boys who boast about their sexual encounters are often labeled as players, or legends. Whereas girls who boast about their sexual encounters are labeled as slags. This shows that society is hypocritical and patriarchal. Masculinity is superior to femininity.
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