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Cody Handy-Hart

on 12 October 2013

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"The Lost Generation" refers to a generation of people born between 1883 and 1990.
Originally based on the generation of people but later based on a generation of writer's .
Idea was originally credited by the writer Gertrude Stein, who said, "you are all a lost generation" during a conversation with writer Ernest Hemingway.
"Lost Generation" also is used when describing literary terms
"The Lost Generation" spirit took place in New York City, Chicago, Paris, Berlin, London, New Orleans, Los Angeles, and Philadelphia.
For the writer's of this generation the major city of contribution was Paris.
The greatest expatriates could be found in the streets around the boulevard Montparnasse.
(Jaracz, 2011)
This generation refers to those born at the turn of the 20th century.
Time when the world was changing at a rapid pace (technological advances ie. automobile).
Millions of immigrants poured into the United States, searching for a better life. While many Americans poured out (ie. writers)
Members of "The Lost Generation" became independent and self-sufficient with no need of guidance from elders.
WWI forced this generation to grow up quickly and those who fought, war was all the knew.
(Jaracz, 2011)
With the return of soldier's from war, the government ignored their heroes, causing veterans to become disillusioned of the government.
Skeptical behavior towards all authority was generated, since parents of this generation pushed for the Prohibition of alcohol.
"The Lost Generation" was a time for people to start exploring their set of values as individuals.
They explored values that would be against that of a person's elders, already established.
"The lost Generation" was a rebellion of the past values and views.
It gave rise to "The Roaring 20s" including gangsters, speakeasies, and hedonism.
Defined a sense of moral loss or aimlessness apparent in literary figures during the 20's.
WWI destroyed the idea that by acting virtuously good things can happen.
The self-indulgent spree came to a halt when the stock market crashed in 1929.
Members of "The Lost Generation" were nomadic .
After WWI, it was evident that the world would be changed forever. This was due to technological advances (ie. tanks) and how the war was fought.
War reflected the dark, disturbing underside of technological invention.
The war affected an entire generation of over 37 million casualties.
After the war was over, cynical feelings towards humanity's prospects and rebellious feelings against values of elders, were present.
People sought debauchery instead of decency and hedonism instead of idealistic views*

(Jaracz, 2011)
Debauchery: bad or immoral behavior that involves sex, drugs, alcohol, etc.

Decency: polite, moral, and honest behavior and attitudes that show respect for other people.

Hedonism: the belief that pleasure or happiness is the most important goal in life.

(Merriam-Webster Inc., 1995)
The Youth
Speakeasy: a place where alcoholic drinks were sold illegally in the U.S. during the 1920s

Flappers: a young woman in the 1920s who dressed and behaved in a way that was considered very modern

Doughboys: an American infantryman especially in World War I

(Merriam-Webster Inc., 1995)
Betty Boop
A cartoon version of a Flapper
Gertrude Stein
F. Scott Fitzgerald
Ernest Hemingway
E.E. Cummings
Important time for the literary world.
After the war many writers moved to Europe (Paris), in order to escape mainstream America.
Paris was the capital of bohemian culture and artistic community.
Writers could live in Paris for little money.
Parisian culture was more permissive of literature, confronting established mores and codes of behavior .
"Lost Generation" described a group of writers and artists who were among the brightest American literary talent.
New literary culture was created, capturing the spirit of the 20's.
The phrase "you are all a lost generation" Gertrude Stein, depicted this generation as characterized by doomed youth, hedonism, uncompromising creativity and wounded both literally and metaphorically because of the experience of war. These beliefs found in the lives of every member of this generation.
Work produced by the American expatriates in Paris were very influential.
Writers work was supported by a small-scale environmentalism in the creative arts
Many literary works were produced by small presses, including Shakespeare & Company, Contact Editions, Black Sun Press, Three Mountains Press, Plain Editions, and Obelisk Press.
(The British Library Board)
(Jaracz, 2011)
John Dos Passos
These writers were apart of a rebellious literary group.
Writer's rejected modern American materialism.
Believed America was intolerant, materialistic and nonspiritual.
20th literature created a mold for future writers.
Writers ideas were based off of the sense of moral loss, aimlessness and the time/theme of the 1920's.
With common themes including decadence, gender roles and impotence, idealized past.
One famous author of this time John Dos Passos, wrote "Three Soldiers" (1920), providing the first anti-war novel of this period.
Anti-war was a theme, often present in writers ideas.
(Jaracz, 2011)

Young artists were attracted to locales such as Greenwich Village, Chicago, and San Francisco in an attempt on creating a new art and also to protest. As well as Paris (The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 2012)
Norms of romance fell into abandonment due to the use of extreme realism, or complex symbolism, or created myth. Issues surrounding censorship arose, largely because the language was growing increasingly frank.
Ezra Pound, an English writer first moved to Paris, making his presence on the literary scene at salons and little magazines.
Soon many more writer's started drifting in and out of town.
Paris was a good place for writers to get published.
The literary colony was based in Montparnasse, surrounded by four large cafes.
By the end of the decade, many of the writer community had either moved to the States or moved to other cities
Writer's were influenced mostly by other artists.
(Mills, 1998)

Most of the poetry after the first world war was mainly dominated by T.S. Eliot and people who followed him or his style. The new style was a somewhat classical form, which was urged by Ezra Pound, another expatriate friend of his. Eliot was a very influential literary critic and made the 20s period into the 60s dominated by literary analysts. (The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 2012)

These people would usher in an era of literary and lifestyle changes which would sweep through the United States and Europe. (The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 2012)
Ezra Pound
February 3 1974 - July 27 1946.
Wrote novels, plays and poetry.
Mother of "The Lost Generation".
Writer's in Paris, considered her as a mentor, someone to look up to, a teacher and a critic.
"The Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas" made her famous in 1933, written in the voice of Toklas (life partner).
When first arriving in Paris, she and her brother collected art, championing the works of lesser known artists.
Traveled a lot during her life.
Patriotic towards both France and America in her work.
(Stein, 1973)
Bruce Barton: ”Creed of an Advertising Man”
Raymond Chandler: “The Big Sleep”
Malcolm Cowley: “The View from Eighty”
T. S. Eliot:”The Waste Land “
Ernest Hemingway: “The Sun Also Rises”
William Faulkner:“The Sound and the Fury”
F. Scott Fitzgerald: “ The Great Gatsby”
Dashiell Hammett: “The Maltese Falcon”
Sinclair Lewis “Babbitt”
Erich Maria Remarque: “All Quiet on the Western Front”
Hart Crane: “The Bridge”
Gertrude Stein: "The Making of Americans"

(Writers History, 2008)
DECADENCE: (Moral or cultural decline) As an example it, could be seen through Fitzgerald's work of The Great Gatsby, involving lavish parties. Or the aimless traveling, drinking, and parties seen through Hemingway's book 'The Sun Also Rises". Writer's revealed the nature of the shallow, frivolous lives of the young and wealthy.

GENDER ROLES AND IMPOTENCE: Seen through the destructive notions of warfare as a calling for young men. In Ernest Hemingway's "The Sun Also Rises", the narrator is impotent as a result of war wound and instead it is his female love Brett who acts the man, manipulating sexual partners.

IDEALIZED PAST: Rather than facing the horrors of warfare, many worked in creating an idealized image of the past, with no bearing in reality. Can be seen in Gatsby's idealization of Daisy, through his inability to see her as who she truly is.

Bruce Barton
Dashiell Hammett
Her writing style is considered to be idiosyncratic, playful, repetitive and humorous nature.
Mainly used the present progressive tense.
Her use of repetition is attributed to her search for descriptions of the ‘bottom nature’ of her characters.
Social judgement is not present in her writing, so the reader can feel whatever he/she wants to feel.
Also no fear, anxiety, or anger present in her work.
Started off by publishing retelling of her college experiences.
Writing was a way for her to get over obstacles.
She wanted to build a language and literature in the States without separating the two.
She referred to the "lost generation", after hearing a garage owner say it to a young mechanic.
Very influential in both writing and as a person.
Her writing themes were based off the spirit seen throughout the 1920's.
(Stein, 1973)
Born 1896 in Saint Paul.
Considered to be the leader of the literary movement.
First published book was "This Side of Paradise" 1920.
"This Side of Paradise" was written and divided in three parts showing the young generation, masked behind the great depression of the Jazz Age.
A writer of the "Lost Generation" based off of his work including specific themes of individual identity, love, eroticism, daily life, Americanism etc.
1925 he published his second (masterpiece) "The Great Gatsby".
"The Great Gatsby" is often seen as an early example of the modernist techniques of the "Lost Generation".
"The Great Gatsby" was based off a wealthy man who hides an illusion of sad loneliness (WWI). This contrasting between between during the war and after the war which is a characteristic of the "Lost Generation".
Fitzgerald also hid some secret meanings in "The Great Gatsby", which included the death of the American Dream because of war and the violence of America as a whole.
Working ideas off of America, was a common trait for writer's in this time.
Writing reflects the immortality and aimlessness of the "Lost Generation" .
Moved back and forth from America to Europe in the 1920s and 1930s.
Married Zelda Fitzgerald who was also a writer of the "Lost Generation".
He was known to be prone to drunken behavior.
Fitzgerald lived a lavish lifestyle based, very similar to that of the "Lost Generation".
He was a modernist and his writing often included imagery and a first person narrative often times considered pompous.
Literary idol in the 1930s and 1940s for young writers.
A great admirer of Gertrude Stein as she was his mentor.
The one who unveiled the term "Lost Generation".
Born July 21, 1899 in Oak Park, Illinois, USA.
1918 he joined the Italian Red Cross and went to Paris where he met Gertrude Stein.
WWI had an impact on him as he was an ambulance driver during the war.
His first publication was in 1926 "The Sun Also Rises" which popularized the term "Lost Generation", using it as a epigraph.
"The Sun Also Rises" was based off of the post-war generation, centering around expatriate Americans who survived war.
Work often nodded to that of America.
Hemingway later withdrew from Stein's influence, with their relationship dying off later on.
He was dedicated to his work, arranging his schedule around his work.
At first he worked out of hotels, but later took writing in cafes in the daytime.
(Hemingway Ltd., 2013)
His writing technique was used to embark readers on an adventure.
He wrote for money and drank heavily
Writing technique is uncomplicated, considered to be a master of dialogue and he was a modernist.
He died due to suicide in 1961.
Many of his ideas were based off of the post war side of the "Lost Generation" .
Served as an ambulance driver in France during WWI.
Imprisoned by the French due to them believing that he was a spy.
After the war his work embodied the persona of the "Lost Generation".
He lived in both Greenwich and Connecticut, with many trips to Paris.
His poetry was known for pushing boundaries of form, through playing with spelling and syntax.
He created new techniques and structures for the poetry universe.
(Jaracz, 2011)
Considered a radical change, with a new vision on American literature.
Employed through whole Americans abroad, certain revival in society, or describing persons on the margins of society .
Based mostly on the writer's of this time period.
Could be found mainly in the city of Paris.
The spirit of this time reflected that of debauchery instead of decency and hedonism instead of idealistic views
(Jaracz, 2011)
Some of the Writers of the 1920's
(American Legends Inc., 2002)
(Grade Saver, 2013)
(Grade Saver, 2013)
American Legends Inc. (2002). Hemingway: A Look Back. Retrieved October 08, 2013, from American Authors: http://www.americanlegends.com/authors/
Grade Saver. (2013). Biography of F. Scott Fitzgerald. Retrieved October 08, 2013, from List of Works, Study Guides & Essays: "http://www.gradesaver.com/author/f-scott-fitzgerald/"
Hemingway Ltd. (2013). Ernest Hemingway. Retrieved October 08, 2013, from Ernest Hemingway: http://www.ernesthemingwaycollection.com
Jaracz, J. (2011, 23 May). How the Lost Generation Works. Retrieved October 08, 2013, from How Stuff Works: <http://people.howstuffworks.com/culture-traditions/generation-gaps/lost-generation.htm>
Mills, I. (1998). Hemingway's Paris Part 2. Retrieved October 07, 2013, from Discover France: http://www.discoverfrance.net/France/Paris/Paris_Hemingway2.shtml
O'Connor, K. (n.d.). Lost Generation. Retrieved October 09, 2013, from University of Oxford : http://writersinspire.org/content/lost-generation
Stein, G. (1973). Fernhurst, Q.E.D and other early writings. Liveright.
The British Library Board. (n.d.). American Literature in Europe- The "Lost Generation". Retrieved October 09, 2013, from British Library: http://www.bl.uk/onlinegallery/features/amliteuro/lostgen.html
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia. (2012). American Literature . Retrieved October 07, 2013, from infoplease: http://www.infoplease.com/encyclopedia/entertainment/american-literature-the-lost-generation-after.html
Writers History. (2008). Lost Generation. Retrieved October 08, 2013, from Writers History Literature Portal: http://writershistory.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=category&sectionid=4&id=20&Itemid=33

[Untitled photograph of art rendition of The Great Gatsby party] Retrieved from http://www.poland.k12.oh.us/teachers/hskv/The%20Gatsby%20Party_files/image012.jpg
[Untitled photograph of women standing in front of Eiffel Tower 1920] Retrieved from http://farm4.staticflickr.com/3332/3651203910_04ae07ea22.jpg
[Untitled photograph of café in Paris during the 1920’s] Retrieved from http://griffithcompression.wikispaces.com/The+Lost+Generation
[British soldiers cross a ridge at the Battle of Mons in France in 1914] Retrieved from http://peopleus.blogspot.ca/2011/02/all-quiet-in-western-front-remembrance.html
City of Toronto Archives. (1929) Canadian automakers produce 240,000 vehicles Retrieved from http://www.canadiancar.technomuses.ca/eng/frise_chronologique-timeline/1920/
Scarlet and Sterling. 1920 Flappers Retrieved from http://www.wilderutopia.com/performance/literary/monte-schulz-dreaming-jazz-america-in-the-big-town/
[Untitled photograph of a speakeasy club in the 1920] Retrieved from http://sonorareview.com/2013/04/18/wip-prom-speakeasy-on-saturday/
[Untitled photograph of 1920 gangsters] Retrieved from http://www.glogster.com/ndhsesteban/1920-s-gangsters/g-6mjlgp3h2on6488d21uqja0
[Doughboys at Cochen] Retrieved from http://www.old-picture.com/american-history-1900-1930s/Doughboys-Cochem-at.htm
[Untitled photograph of Betty Boop] Retrieved from http://rufiojones.wordpress.com/2011/03/17/cartoon-black-history-betty-boop/
[Gertrude Stein, 1903] Retrieved from http://www.npr.org/blogs/pictureshow/2011/06/11/137111329/gertrude-stein-through-artists-eyes

[F. Scott Fitzgerald] Retrieved from http://topics.nytimes.com/top/reference/timestopics/people/f/f_scott_fitzgerald/index.html
[Ernest Hemingway] Retrieved from http://www.abolitionist.com/ernest-hemingway.html
[e.e.cummings] Retrieved from http://www.last.fm/music/e.%2Be.%2Bcummings
[John Dos Passos, 1921] Retrieved from http://rickrozoff.wordpress.com/2011/05/30/john-dos-passos-three-soldiers/
[Three Soldiers novel, 1920] Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Three_Soldiers
[Ezra Pound] Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ezra_Pound
[Bruce Barton, 2005] Retrieved from http://www.paperhall.org/inductees/bios/2005/bruce_purdy.php
[Dashiell Hammett] Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dashiell_Hammett
[The Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas novel] Retrieved from http://www.amazon.com/The-Autobiography-Alice-B-Toklas/dp/067972463X
[Gertrude Stein] Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lisa_vs._Malibu_Stacy
[This Side of Paradise] Retrieved from http://theliterarysnob.tumblr.com/post/38443968871/this-side-of-paradise-book-review
[The Great Gatsby] Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Great_Gatsby
[F. Scott Fitzgerald and Zelda Fitzgerald] Retrieved from http://www.gameranx.com/features/id/15395/article/zelda-secrets-easter-eggs-facts/
[The Sun also Rises novel] Retrieved from http://library.sc.edu/spcoll/amlit/hemingway/hem3.html
[Ernest Hemingway artist rendition] Retrieved from http://www.postalmuseum.si.edu/artofthestamp/SubPage%20table%20images/artwork/arts/Ernest%20Hemingway/BIGernest.htm
[e.e. Cummings in 1953] Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/E._E._Cummings
(John F. Kennedy Presidential Library, Ernest Hemmingway Photograph Collection) Retrieved from http://www.pbs.org/wnet/americannovel/timeline/lostgeneration.html
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