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Alex Lim

on 30 April 2010

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Transcript of Plants

Plants: n.
Any of various photosynthetic, eukaryotic, multicellular organisms of the kingdom Plantae characteristically producing embryos, containing chloroplasts, having cellulose cell walls, and lacking the power of locomotion. Alex Lim + ted pane The History of Plants

•Palæozoic flora (542 million years ago to 488.3 Ma)
oCambrian flora
This is when the very rudimentary forms of early plants started to emerge. They were small, unicellular or filamentous, composed mostly of soft body tissues, with simple branching.
o Ordovician flora (between 488.3 and 443.7 Ma)

First extensive spores began to appear in fossil records. These early plants did not have conducting tissues, severely limiting their size. They were also tied to wet terrestrial environments by their inability to conduct water
oSilurian flora (443.7 Ma)
This is when the vascular plants first began to emerge. In other words, plants started to have lignified tissues, which enabled them to conduct water, minerals, and other photosynthetic products through the plant, as opposed to the ones from the previous floras that could not do this.
oDevonian flora (416.0 Ma)
The bacterial and algal mats were joined early in the period by primitive plants that created the first recognizable soils. Early Devonian plants did not have roots or leaves like the plants most common today, and many had no vascular tissue at all. They are supposed to have spread largely by abundant growth, but did not grow much more than a few centimeters tall.
o Carboniferous Flora (359 to 299 Ma)
Early Carboniferous land plants were very similar to those of the preceding Latest Devonian, but new groups also appeared at this time.
The main Early Carboniferous plants were the Equisetales (Horse -tails), Lycopodiales (Club mosses), Filicales (Ferns), and Medullosales (previously included in the "seed ferns", an artificial assemblage of a number of early gymnosperm groups)
The Carboniferous was a time of glaciations, low sea level and mountain building; a minor marine extinction event occurred in the middle of the period. The name comes from the Latin word for coal, carbo. Carboniferous means "coal-bearing". Many beds of coal were laid down all over the world during this period, hence the name.
oPerminan flora (299.0 to 251.0 Ma)
The Permian flora, the last period of Paleozoic period began with the Carboniferous flora still flourishing. About the middle of the Permian there was a major transition in vegetation. The swamp-loving lycopod trees of the Carboniferous, such as Lepidodendron and Sigillaria, were replaced by the more advanced conifers, which were better adapted to the changing climatic conditions.
•Mesozoic Flora
oTriassic flora (250 to 200 Ma)
On land, the holdover plants included the lycophytes, the dominant cycads, ginkgophyta (represented in modern times by Ginkgo biloba) and glossopterids. The spermatophytes or seed plants came to dominate the terrestrial flora: in the northern hemisphere, conifers flourished. Glossopteris (a seed fern) was the dominant southern hemisphere tree during the Early Triassic period.
oJurassic flora (199.6 Ma)
The dry conditions characteristic of the Triassic steadily eased during the Jurassic period, especially at higher latitudes; the warm, humid climate allowed lush jungles to cover much of the landscape. Conifers, which are cone-bearing plants with vascular tissues, dominated the flora, as during the Triassic; they were the most diverse group and constituted the majority of large trees.
o Cretaceous flora (145.5 to 65.5 Ma)
Flowering plants, also known as angiosperms, spread during this period, although they did not become predominant until near the end of the period (Campanian age). Their evolution was aided by the appearance of bees; in fact angiosperms and insects are a good example of coevolution. The first representatives of many modern trees, including figs, planes and magnolias, appeared in the Cretaceous
•Cenozoic Flora (65.5 million years ago to the present)
The Cenozoic is just as much the age of savannas, or the age of co-dependent flowering plants and insects. At 35 Ma, grasses evolved from among the angiosperms. About ten thousand years ago, humans in the Fertile Crescent of the Middle East develop agriculture. Plant domestication begins with cultivation of Neolithic founder crops.
Vital Elements of Plant Evolution vascular tissues
- capillary action
Clement weathers from the jurassic period The Major Plant Divisions
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