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Ecological problems of Kazakhstan today. (Nevada-Semipalatin
Transcript of Ecological problems of Kazakhstan today. (Nevada-Semipalatin
The humanity has a huge impact on the environment via different actions.
Something that had small influence in the past easily can bring giant negative effect in future, and to investigate all of dangers which could occur, history will help.
The Soviet Union performed about 500 nuclear bomb tests on a site called Semipalatinsk-21, that was 160km away from the Kazakh city Semipalatinsk, which is now Semey. The testing began in 1949 and continued for forty more years, finished in 1989. The site was officially closed on August 29 1991. The Soviets built structures and placed animals in the sites to test the strength and affect of the bombs. 200 000 vikkages were also subject to the cruelty of the Soviets. The people of semipalatinsk were forced to stand outside their homes each time bomb tested in order to study the effects of radiation on human.
Reasons of Radiation Contamination
A diversity of factors form the radioecological situation on the territory of the Republic, the main factors were:
•Activity of the former Semipalatinsk Nuclear Testing Site;
•Nuclear explosions for purpose of the national economy, made in 1949-1961;
•Activity of enterprises of nuclear industry complex;
•Activity of the Lobnor Nuclear testing site in China and global falls;
•Natural radioactive anomalies in residential areas and underground waters, used for drinking water supply.
Checked by Meldibekova G. A.
Done by Ekzekova T.
Ecological problems of Kazakhstan today. (Nevada-Semipalatinsk, Aral, Balkhash-lake problems )
In an ongoing effort in Kazakhstan to save and replenish the North Aral Sea, a dam project was completed in 2005; in 2008, the water level in this lake had risen by 12 m (39 ft) compared to 2003. Salinity has dropped, and fish are again found in sufficient numbers for some fishing to be viable. The maximum depth of the North Aral Sea is 42 m (138 ft) (as of 2008).
Formerly one of the four largest lakes in the world with an area of 68,000 km2 (26,300 sq mi), the Aral Sea has been steadily shrinking since the 1960s after the rivers that fed it were diverted by Soviet irrigation projects. By 2007, it had declined to 10% of its original size, splitting into four lakes. By 2009, the southeastern lake had disappeared and the southwestern lake had retreated to a thin strip at the extreme west of the former southern sea. Satellite images taken by NASA in August 2014 revealed that for the first time in modern history the eastern basin of the Aral Sea had completely dried up. The eastern basin is now called the Aralkum desert.
The Aral Sea region is also heavily polluted, with consequential serious public health problems.
Bay of Zhalanash, Ship Cemetery, Aralsk, Kazakhstan
List of References
In January 1994, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, and Kyrgyzstan signed a deal to pledge 1% of their budgets to help the sea recover.
The fauna of the lake was formerly rich but declined from the 1970s owing to the lake’s deteriorating water quality. Before these declines began, 20 species of fish inhabited the lake, of which six were peculiar to the lake itself.
The economic importance of Lake Balkhash had greatly increased during the first part of the 20th century. Most significant was the fishing and fish breeding begun in the 1930s. A regular shipping service with a large freight turnover also developed. Also of great economic significance to the region was the construction of the Balqash copper-refining plant, around which the large city of Balqash grew on the north shore of the lake. However, in 1970 the Qapshaghay hydroelectric-power station began operations on the Ile River. The diversion of water to fill the Qapshaghay reservoir and to provide for irrigation reduced the flow of the Ile River by two-thirds and caused a decline in the lake’s water level. The surface of Lake Balkhash dropped 7 feet (2.2 m) between 1970 and 1987. The lake has become increasingly saline and has also suffered pollution from the leakage of fuel-storage depots and from copper mining and processing along its shores. Much of the catch from the fishing industry is now quarantined, and the forest and wetland habitats around the lake have shrunk. As of the early 1990s, no action had been taken to reverse the ecological damage done to the lake and its surroundings.
Thank You For Attention