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The English Reformation
Transcript of The English Reformation
Reformation Ideas Spread
The Catholic church fought back against the growing Protestant movement by trying to reform the church with little success.
As the Reformation continued hundreds of new Protestant sects (religious groups that had broken away from an established church) sprang up.
The English Reformation
In 1527 after 18yrs of marriage to his Spanish wife Catherine of Aragon Henry wants a divorce.
Henry VIII Seeks an Annulment
They had only one child together, a daughter named Mary Tudor.
Henry felt that England's stability depended on his having a male heir.
He hoped that if he married her she would bear him a son.
Henry had fallen in love with a young noblewoman named Anne Bolelyn, who served the Queen.
It is a practice that had been done before but the pope refused this time because he did not want to offend the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V who was Catherine's nephew.
Because Catholic law does not permit divorce, he asked the pope to annul, or cancel his marriage.
Upon the popes decision Henry decides to take over the English church.
Breaking with the Church
Henry appoints Thomas Cranmer archbishop of the Church of England who then annuls the king's marriage to Catherine of Aragon.
Guided by his chancellor Thomas Cromwell, he had parliament pass a series of laws that took control of the English church from the pope and placed it under Henry's rule.
Anne soon gave birth to a daughter named Elizabeth.
Henry eventually has Anne beheaded for committing "adultery" so he could marry Jane Seymour.
In 1533 Henry married Anne Boleyn.
In 1534 Parliament passed the Act of Supremacy, making Henry "the only supreme head on Earth of the Church of England"
Many loyal Catholics refused to accept the Act of Supremacy and were executed for treason. (Including humorist Sir Thomas More)
Henry dies in 1547 and 9 year old Edward VI (son of Jane Seymour) takes the thrown.
He takes steps to make the Anglican church the only church of England.
Uprisings ensued and were harshly suppressed.
Edward dies as a teenager and his half-sister Mary Tudor (daughter of Catherine of Aragon) becomes Queen.
Mary wants to return England to the Catholic faith.
As a result, hundreds of English Protestants, including arch bishop Thomas Cramner were burned at the stake for heresey.
Mary is given the nick-name "Bloody Mary" by the people of England
She institutes a series of compromises between Protestant and Catholic practices which ended decades of religious turmoil,restoring unity to England
It becomes known as the Elizabethan settlement.
Mary dies in 1558 and the throne passed to 25 yr old Elizabeth ( daughter of Anne Boleyn.
Pope Paul III begins to reform the Catholic church.
Creates the Council of Trent in 1545
Reaffirmed traditional catholic views that Protestants challenged.
Provided stiff penalties for worldliness and corruption among the clergy.
Established schools to create a better educated clergy who could challenge Protestant teachings
The Catholic Reformation
Through its reforms the Church was able to bring back Protestant converts.
By the 1600 the majority of Europeans remained Catholic
Ignatius of Loyola
Religious conflict played into heated disagreements about government, which would erupt into war throughout much of Europe.
Today Europe remains divided by differing interpretations of Christianity.
Legacy of the Catholic Reformation