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Transcript of U.S. Constitution
B. Judicial Review
A. House of Representatives
C. Important Info Found
in Article I
Preamble is the introduction to the Constitution
Outlines basic form of American government
3 Branches (Legislative, Executive, and Judicial)
I - Powers of Congress
II - Powers of President/Executive
III - Powers of Judicial
IV - Relations between states
V - Amending the Constitution
VI - Constitution is Supreme
VII - Ratifying the Constitution
* Creates or makes laws
* In order for a bill to become law
2/3 of Congress must approve
1. Minimum age of 25
2. Terms last 2 years, but can serve many terms
3. Citizen of U.S. for 7 years
4. Must live in the state you represent
5. 435 members, based on state population
6. All tax bills begin here
1. Minimum age of 30
2. Terms last 6 years, but can serve many terms
3. Citizen for 9 years
4. Must live in state you represent
5. 100 members, based on 2 per state
6. Vice-president is President
7. Approves presidential appointees (Supreme 8. Court justices, ambassadors)
9. Approve Treaties
No person shall be held without being tried in court.
No illegal detaining by gov't
If evidence against accused is found insufficient, then they MUST be released.
2. Bill of Attainder:
Discriminate an individual or group without trial
"No Bill of Attainder or ex post facto Law will be passed"
3. Ex Post Facto (After the Fact):
Laws passed to restrict behavior that was, when practiced, entirely legal.
Example: Littering was once legal, but then a bill is passed to outlaw
it and it goes against people who have littered before and
is now dated 5 years before it was actually considered illegal.
Not a good thing.
II. Executive Branch
* President & Cabinet
* Enforce laws created by Congress
1. Four year term
* Elected 2 terms max
* 10 year max
3 terms, but was elected 4
* 22 amendment limits
2. Must give a State of the Union Address
3. Must be 35 or older
1. Can pardon criminals
2. Make treaties with the approval of the Senate
3. Appoint Cabinet and judges to the Supreme Court
Secretary of Defense, Secretary of State, Attorney General,
4. Veto or sign a bill into law
I. Legislative Branch
III. Judicial Branch
* Interpret laws passed through Congress
* Supreme Court
* Serve for life
1. 8 Associate Justices and 1 Chief Justice
2. Chief Justice - John Roberts
3. Associate Justices:
Sonia Sotomayor, Elena Kagan, Antonin
Scalia, Anthony M. Kennedy, Clarence
Thomas, Ruth Bader Ginsburg, Samuel
A. Alito, Jr., Stephen G. Breyer
1. Power to examine an executive or legislative act
3. Basically the S.C. is the last line of defense on
4. Marbury vs. Madison establishes this power
- Chief Justice John Marshall
All 27 Amendments
Quicker Look at Amendments 12-27
Bill of Rights
Is the Constitution
still relevant today?
does our S.C. do a
good job interpreting it
A. Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom
Sets the stage for the first amendment and religious freedom of the country
B. Eminent Domain
Government must have due process to take land.
IV. Article IV
A. All states must honor other state laws
B. Equal treatment of citizens
C. Admittance of new states
V. Article V
- Details for amending/
changing the Constitution
VI. Article VI
A. Guarantees that U. S. assume:
1. All debts and
2. Contracts entered
*Under the Articles of Confederation
B. All laws and treaties are supreme law of
C. Swear an oath of allegiance to the United States and the
Constitution when taking office
VII. Article VII
A. Details the method for:
- Ratification or acceptance of the Constitution
B. Only nine had to accept the Constitution.
I. Electoral College
Popular election was too reckless
Includes 538 electors, 535 for the total number of congressional members, and three who represent Washington, D.C.
Nominated by his or her state party committee
vote for directly for the president
270 Votes needed to win the presidency
Ohio has 18 votes
C. Virginia Plan
Madison's plan to divide the gov't into 3 Branches
Establish checks and balances
D. Elastic Clause
Gives congress the ability to pass laws that are necessary
Laws are necessary and proper
E. Supremacy Clause
Mentioned in Article VI
Establishes U.S. Constitution as "supreme law of the land."
F. Impeachment -
an official is accused of unlawful activity, and may include the removal of that official from office as well as criminal or civil punishment.
- Andrew Johnson (Tenure of Office Act), Richard Nixon (Watergate), Bill Clinton (Monica Lewinsky)
G. Northwest Ordinance of 1787
Establishes plan for western territories to
"There shall be neither slavery nor involuntary servitude in the said territory."
Language prohibits slavery, but it did not emancipate the slaves already there.
- Delegated Powers - Powers assigned to the Federal gov't
- Reserved Powers - Powers of the states, not specifically assigned to the
- Concurrent Powers - Powers both the Fed and State gov't have at the
1. Writ of Habeas Corpus
Why healthcare is legal according to S.C.
C. Cabinet Members
1. Secretary of State - John Kerry
2. Secretary of Defense - Chuck Hagel
3. Attorney General - Eric Holder
VIII. Important Additional Info:
AJ & BC were almost impeached
Nixon would definitely be impeached, but he left office before impeachment process.
* Ohio has 16 representatives in the U.S. HOR(2014)