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Nuclear Fusion

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Lindsey Kapel

on 31 May 2016

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Transcript of Nuclear Fusion


the gradual accumulation of radioactivity in the components and other materials used in the area
costs billions of dollars in reaserch funding
if there are leaks harmful radiation could be released resulting in cancer
Where does this process occur?
What is produced?
Uses large amount of energy to overcome repulsion-(Coloumb's Barrier)
actual fusion gives off much more than taken in
Amount of energy needed to fuse
depends on mass of starting atoms
Nuclear Fusion
The process of combining two different nuclei into one single nucleus by colliding at high speed

How does this process occur?
start at 1:14-------
The Sun
not sure about this one---
Nuclear Fussion occurs when two nuclei are placed close enough to eachother that the binding energy overcomes repulsion-- resulting in the formation of a new type of atomic nucleus.

In order for fusion to occur...
electron cloud must be removed
adding substantial amounts of heat, creating an ionized plasma.
nuclei must be forced together at a very high speed
substantial amounts of pressure and energy must be added
the particles need to have a very high temperature.

Nuclear Fusion in the sun
Fusion Reactor
gravity of core creates enough pressure to fuse atoms
620 million metric tons per second (3.768*10^38)
How Nuclear Fusion Reactors Work
Why Nuclear Fusion Reactors are needed
New, environmentally sustainable forms of electricity will be required to meet the aspirations of a growing world population.

By 2050, an expected rise in global population from six billion to nine billion and better living standards could lead to a two to threefold increase in energy consumption.
Fusion offers a secure, long-term source of supply, with important advantages. These include: no production of greenhouse gases from the fusion process, no long-lived radioactive waste (all waste will be recyclable within 100 years), inherent safety features, and almost unlimited fuel supplies. On current estimates, the cost of fusion-generated electricity is predicted to be broadly comparable to that obtained from fission, renewables and fossil fuels.

Fusion, therefore, could have a key role to play in the energy market of the future, with the potential to produce at least 20% of the world's electricity by 2100

Magnetic-confinement fusion process

In the sun's core (it is the hottest area)
uncontrolled nuclear fusion has occured in nuclear weapon testing and in weapons such as the hydrogen bomb
at a temperature that is around 100 million Kelvin (hydrogen is plasma)
atoms must be 1x10^-15 meters from each other to fuse.

Two pairs of hydrogen protons form to make two deuterium atoms

Each deuterium atom combines with another hydrogen proton to form a helium-3 atom.

Two helium-3 atoms combine to form two helium-4 atoms and releases 2 protons

These reactions produce high energy particles (protons, electrons, neutrinos, positrons) and radiation (light, gamma rays)

Nuclear Fusion
Lindsey Kapel, Leah Blitstein, Olivia Stanley
Dangers of Uncontrolled Nuclear Fusion:
Dangers of a Fusion Reactor:
Proton-proton Chain
keep in mind... it is difficult to access all of the potential dangers as scientists have been unable to be fully sucessfull in creating energy
Hydrogen atoms FUSE into Helium atoms
History of Nuclear Fusion
shorty after WWII
late 1950's
1938 experiments are set up in the U.S. to try and confine a hot plasma using magnetic fields
1939 Hans Bethe shows how fusion powers the stars in work which won him the 1967 Nobel Prize in physics.
international wave of interest in controlling nuclear fusion
experiments set up secretly in many countries because leaders believed the information had military signifigance
"Atoms for Peace" Conference in Geneva
Many countries including Russia and the US revealed the results of their fusion programmes. They realised that controllable fusion energy was possible, but they also understood that, due to plasma instabilities and other issues, it would not be an easy task.

In order to tackle the technological and scientific issues it was decided to organise the research entirely on an international level.
In Europe... European Atomic Agency EURATOM
In Netherlands... Rijnhuizen FOM Institute for Plasma Physics

physicist F.W. Aston discovers four hydrogen atoms are heavier than one helium atom
Astrphysicsist Edmund Eddington realized that the difference in mass(0.7%) meant that the sun was able to burn by converting H He and that it would last for billions of years

majority of the sun's energy- hydrogen to helium
can also come from:
helium + helium - beryllium
beryllium + electron - lithium
lithium + proton - 2 helium
deuterium + deuterium = helium-3 + neutron
(deuterium- one proton and one neutron)

deuterium + tritium = helium-4 + neutron
forms a stable isotope
The current generation of modern, large tokamaks was designed.
The design of
, the largest fusion experiment in the world, started in 1973; but, the construction did not commence until 1979.

On May 1974, KMS Fusion carried out the world's first successful laser-induced fusion in a deuterium-tritium pellet

The Joint European Torus (JET), located near Oxford in England, was put into operation.

Other large tokamaks are located in Germany, France, Japan and the US. In the current generation of tokamaks, fusion plasmas of hundreds of millions of degrees Celsius are routinely generated and maintained for several minutes.
October 1986 President Carter and Soviet Secretary-General Mikhaïl Gorbachev met and agree on an international effort to develope fusion energy
April 1988 International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor Plan (ITER is created)with contributions from many countries throughout the world and begin to come up with design plans
Breakthrough in research...

Russian researchers announced that they had achieved unprecedented results with a tokamak: a special geometry in the shape of a torus. (magnetic confinement device)
The first plasma produced at Tore Supra in April.

A British team travelled to Moscow and confirmed the results of their Russian colleagues.

From that moment on, tokamak experiments were quickly designed and put into operation all over the world.
JET still holds the world record for the generation of fusion energy: in 1997, 16 megawatts were generated during 1 second, and a continuous fusion capacity of 4 MW during 4 seconds.
On December 16th the Tore Supra—the first "superconducting" tokamak—achieves a six and a half minute-long plasma discharge. This represents an important step in the direction of the "long pulses" an industrial reactor will require.
October 24th 2007 ITER orgnaization is formly established
Augest 2008 they test niobium(Ni)-titanium(Ti) superconductor strands for the ITER Poloidal Field (PF) coils in France. Determines that extremely powerful superconducting magnets will be used to maintain the stability of the fusion plasma inside ITER
April 12th 2010, the European Domestic Agency, Fusion for Energy, and a consortium of four European companies, Engage, sign the Architect Engineering contract that covers the construction of buildings and civil infrastructures for ITER. This contract—one of the biggest engineering contracts ever signed in Europe.
Currently & The Future
2013 Tokamak complex construction start.
2015 Predicted: Tokamak assembly start.
2019 Predicted: Tokamak assembly completion
2020 Predicted: Achievement of first plasma.
2027 Predicted: Start of deuterium-tritium operation.
Atkinson and Houtermans used the measured masses of low-mass elements and applied Einstein's discovery that E=mc2 to predict that large amounts of energy could be released by fusing small nuclei together
Mark Oliphant discovered helium 3 and tritium, and that heavy hydrogen nuclei could be made to react with each other.
The Soviet Union test the most powerful hydrogen bomb, the Tsar Bomba (50 megatons). The development for the hydrogen bomb started in 1951by Edward Teller and Stanislaw Ulam at Los Alamos National Laboratory called the Teller-Ulam design, allowing for the development of multi-megaton weapons.

Friedwardt Winterberg proposes the ignition of thermonuclear reactions by the bombardment of liquid deuterium-tritium with a beam of micro-particles accelerated to 1000 km/s.
Hydrogen Bomb
- A hydrogen bomb uses the force of an atomic explosion to compress the hydrogen to the point where fusion takes place.
Most destructuve nuclear weapon ever made
Has potential to be up to 1000 times more powerful than an atomic bomb
Has never been used in warfare but if used could cause...
mass causalties
mass destruction
radiation would cause cancer and would last in the atmosphere for many years
Basically the effects of Hiroshima and multiply it by 1000
3rd degree burns
magnetic confinement, occurs in a device called the tokamak
the plasma is contained in a doughnut-shaped vacuum vessel
The fuel—a mixture of deuterium and tritium, two isotopes of hydrogen—is heated to temperatures in excess of 150 million°C, forming a hot plasma
Strong magnetic fields are used to keep the plasma away from the walls
these are produced by superconducting coils surrounding the vessel
Also produced by an electrical current driven through the plasma.
concept of magnetic confinement,
the plasma is contained in a doughnut-shaped vacuum vessel
The fuel—a mixture of deuterium and tritium, two isotopes of hydrogen—is heated to temperatures in excess of 150 million°C, forming a hot plasma
Strong magnetic fields are used to keep the plasma away from the walls
these are produced by superconducting coils surrounding the vessel
Also produced by an electrical current driven through the plasma.
Inertial confinement
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