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Transcript of Tundra Biome
Alpine and Polar/Arctic
Lots of animals live in the tundra. They are adapted to the cold weather in many different ways.
Tundra comes from the Finnish word tunturi.
Weather and Climate
The Alpine Tundra
The Alpine Tundra biome is found at the tops of tall mountains.
The Polar/Arctic Tundra
The Polar/Arctic tundra is found near the North and South Poles.
Narwhals are well adapted to the tundra and its climate. They live in the Arctic Ocean. These animals are about 8 feet long. During the winter months, narwhals live offshore near very heavy pack ice.
Polar bears live in the circumpolar north in areas where they can hunt for seals. There are 19 populations of polar bears living in 4 different ice regions in the Arctic. Ice is a must, because they depend on it for their prey.
The tundra swan winters mainly along the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of North America. They feed on aquatic plants, such as pondweeds and wild celery found in shallow water.
Tunturi means treeless plain.
Characteristics Of The
It is noted for its frost-molded landscapes, extremely low temperatures, little precipitation, poor nutrients, and short growing seasons.
Characteristics of tundra include:
1.Extremely cold climate
2.Low biotic diversity
3.Simple vegetation structure
4.Limitation of drainage
5.Short season of growth and reproduction
6.Energy and nutrients in the form of dead organic material
7.Large population oscillations
There are two types of tundra: Polar/Arctic and Alpine
The growing season ranges only from 50-60 days and the yearly rain, including melted snow, is 15 to 25 cm, which equals 6 to 10 inches. During the winter season, the average temperature is -29.2°F to -22°F. During the summer season, the average temperature is 37°F to 54°F.
The wind blows constantly in the tundra. Winter months are mostly dark all day. Summer is a brief period when the sun shines almost all day.
by Abby Fridell, Tory Lewis, and Anilyn McCoy
The Polar/Arctic tundra area has low amounts of precipitation and extremely cold temperatures for most of the year. The Polar/Arctic tundra usually receives less than 10 inches of precipitation per year (mostly in the form of snow) with temperatures averaging below minus 30°F in winter. In summer, the sun remains in the sky during the day and night. Summer temperatures average between 35°F-55°F.
The tundra ecosystems are some of Earth's harshest, coldest biomes. They are considered treeless, flat regions. Tundras have a small variety of plants with the exception of shrubs and, when summer time comes, a burst of wildflowers. Though the tundra landscape is defined by rhythmic freezing and thawing, it still supports an extensive array of wildlife and vegetation.
The tundra is mainly flat, except for its occasional mountain ranges so it does not have any canyons. It does, however, have Greenland which is considered an island!
When the snow above the soil layer melts, the water remains on the surface. This is because water cannot be absorbed by the permafrost layer, leaving the top layer wet and soggy. Permafrost is a thick layer of frozen soil that stays frozen.
There are five different land formations:
Pingos, Frost Boils, Bumpy Ground,
Polygons, and Stripes.
The calliergion giganteum grows in the Polar/Arctic tundra. It is an aquatic plant found growing on the bottom of tundra lake beds and in and around bogs and fens. They never have wood stems; they have tiny leaves. They do not flower. This moss needs to be wet to survive. It is the slowest growing and longest living fresh water macrophyte recorded. It is adapted to incredibly strong winds. It grows near the ground. In the Polar/Arctic tundra, moss covers the ground and warms it up allowing other plants to grow. It is eaten by migrating animals such as birds.
Arctic willow can be found in the North American tundra. It lives in dry, cold, and open spaces. It grows as a shrub or carpet. There is no fruit on the plant, only seeds. It has adapted to the permafrost by growing a shallow root system. It has a short growing season. It is well adapted to the cold weather and harsh climate.
The Polar/Arctic tundra is very cold. It is covered with plants and it is extremely windy.
Tundra plants are small and low growing due to the lack of nutrients, because being close to the ground helps keep the plants from freezing. The roots cannot penetrate the permafrost. Plants are dark in color. Some plants are even red. This helps them absorb solar heat. Some plants are covered with hair, which helps keep them warm. Some plants grow in clumps to protect one another from the wind and cold.
Parc National Pingualuit in Quebec
long: 61°17' 3.624
latt: 73° 36'59.0394