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Transcript of Erik Erikson
26/02/2013 Born June 15th, 1902
Unknown biological father
Until early adulthood, believed his stepfather was his biological father
Teased at school because he was Jewish but came from Nordic descent
He gained a certificate in Montessori teaching as well as one from the Vienna psychoanalytic society.
Taught at Harvard, Yale, and the University of California.
Practiced child psychoanalysis and studied the Lakota and Yurok tribes
Published his developmental theory in 1950
Died in 1994. Biography Theoretic Perspective Encompasses entire life cycle
Recognizes impact of society, history and culture on personality
Need a mix of good and bad traits for development to be considered successful Unique Traits of Erikson's Theory Dictionary.com. (2013). Identity Crisis. Retrieved 02 26, 2013, from Dictionary.com: http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/identity+crisisDr. Anderson, M. (2013). State University of New York College at Cortland. Retrieved February 26, 2013, from Erikson Notes: http://web.cortland.edu/andersmd/ERIK/linksum2.HTMLDr. Boeree, G. (2012, February 8). Erik Erikson. Retrieved February 26, 2013, from Shippensburg University: http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/erikson.html Dr. Davis, D., & Clifton, A. (2006, July 21). Erikson's Stages. Retrieved February 26, 2013, from Haverford College: http://www.haverford.edu/psych/ddavis/p109g/erikson.stages.htmlSoylent Communications. (2012). Erik Erikson. Retrieved February 26, 2013, from NNDB: Tracking the Entire World : http://www.nndb.com/people/151/000097857/ Works Cited Mutuality: The interaction of generations has a large influence on individual development. Identity Crisis: “A period or episode of psychological distress, often occurring in adolescence but sometimes in adulthood, when a person seeks a clearer sense of self and an acceptable role in society.” (Dictionary.com, 2013) Epigenetic Principle: We develop in 8 stages
Progress depends on how we have developed in past stages
Each stage has a positive and a negative quality
Our task in each stage is to learn a balance between the positive and negative qualities
If a stage is managed well, we get a virtue that will help us navigate the rest of our lives
If a stage isn't managed well, we will get a maladaption or a malignancy that can endanger our future development. 8 Developmental Stages Stage 1: Infant (0-1) -Psychosocial Crisis: Trust vs Mistrust
-Significant Relations: Mother
-Psychosocial Modalities: To get, to give in return
-Psychosocial Virtues: Hope, faith
Sensory Distortion/Withdrawl Stage 2: Toddler (2-3) -Psychosocial Crisis: Autonomy vs Shame and Doubt
-Significant Relations: Parents
-Psychosocial Modalities: To hold on, to let go
-Psychosocial Virtues: Will, determination
Impulsivity/ Compulsion Stage 3: Preschooler (3-6) -Psychosocial Crisis: Initiative vs Guilt
-Significant Relations: Family
-Psychosocial Modalities: To go after, to play
-Psychosocial Virtues: Purpose,
Ruthlessness/ Inhibition Stage 4: School-Age Child (7-12) -Psychosocial Crisis: Industry vs Inferiority
-Significant Relations: Neighborhood and School
-Psychosocial Modalities: To complete, to make things
-Psychosocial Virtues: Competance
Narrow virtuosity/Inertia Stage 5: Adolescence (12-18) -Psychosocial Crisis: Ego-Identity vs Role Confusion
-Significant Relations: Peer groups, role models
-Psychosocial Modalities: To be oneself,
to share oneself
-Psychosocial Virtues: Loyalty, fidelity
Fanaticism/Repudiation Stage 6: Young Adult (19-30) -Psychosocial Crisis: Intimacy vs Isolation
-Significant Relations: Partners, friends
-Psychosocial Modalities: To lose and
find oneself in another
-Psychosocial Virtues: love
Promiscuity/Exclusivity Stage 7: Middle Adult (30-50) -Psychosocial Crisis: Generativity vs Self-Absorption
-Significant Relations: Household, workmates
-Psychosocial Modalities: To make be, to take care
-Psychosocial Virtues: care
Overextension/Rejectivity Stage 8: Old Adult (50+) -Psychosocial Crisis: Integrity vs Despair
-Significant Relations: Mankind or “my kind”
-Psychosocial Modalities: to be, through having
been, to face not being
-Psychosocial Virtues: Wisdom
Presumption/ Despair Significance of Erikson's Theory How can Erikson's Theory be Applied Today? What Methods did Erikson Use? Strengths/Limitations of Erikson and his Theory Ethical Concerns of Erikson's Research Rejected Freud's idea that personality was determined solely by sexuality
Rejected idea that personality stopped developing at age 5
Believed that personality developed based on preceding stages
Believed that personality development in one stage influenced further development Erikson's theory provides a standard to compare other cultures, past and present, to our own.
Erikson's pattern generally holds across different cultures and is useful when analyzing an individual's development. Observed Native American tribes such as the Lakota and the Yurok
Performed many biographical case studies Erikson mainly used case studies
Case studies are not 100% reliable because they are not always representative of the larger population and the researcher can be biased
Erikson believed that possession of a penis would cause biological personality differences
Erikson's theories are said to be more applicable to males than females Because Erikson only observed and performed biographical case studies, there are no ethical concerns of his research. There were no harmful effects to participants. Your Turn! Try some case studies!