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School Choice

EDUF2007
by

Amelia Scarf

on 20 September 2012

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Transcript of School Choice

Ahmed Hussein
Amelia Scarf
Luke Pollard SCHOOL CHOICE Introduction
and
Background THE RICH LIST Let’s see how many factors you can name that are considered by parents when choosing a school for their child. You have 5 minutes!
The answers will be dictated on the board… A Timeline Evolution of Schooling School Consumerism SCENARIOS Which School is right for YOU? MASS DEBATE Public vs Private Conclusions With "1" being the most important, list from 1-6 of which factors would be the most influential through to the least relevant when selecting a school for your particular scenario.

-Cost
-Travel
-Religion
-Academic Results
-Sport
-Other Opportunities Parents Reasons for choosing Schools
There are three predominant types of secondary schools in Australia:
- GOVERNMENT SCHOOLS: Run by large departments of education
- CATHOLIC SCHOOLS: Central bureaucracies are various Catholic Education Offices
- OTHER INDEPENDENT SCHOOLS: Regulated by authorities, ultimately established by governments.

1. Family Strategy Theory -
Family planning and research, effort or no effort
2. Social Reproduction Theory -
Social structures and hierarchies PROCESS FOR CHOOSING A SCHOOL (Connell, et al., 2010) •The needs of a clever child
•Importance of good facilities
•Social cohesion and tolerance and social mixing/multiculturalism
•Tolerance, values and inclusion
•Making confident leaders and citizens
•Dangers, such as drugs and crime
•Parent communities alongside of children schooling
•The child’s choice (Connell, et al., 2010) Gewritz, Ball and Bowe (1995)
- Privileged
- Frustrated
- Disconnected
- Non-choosers

- Neither simple nor natural phenomenon.
- Structured and promoted by the government and some families able to engage in it more than others.
- Depends on your background, family history, access to various sources, social and cultural capital that defines school choice. Late 18th Century → Early 19th Century
• School – private experience for most (especially the wealthy)
• Government had no responsibility for education
• NSW education set on British approach
• First government funded and controlled school introduced for “social control and reformation of most unruly groups in society – Orphans (1795), Girls (1801), Aboriginal Natives (1815)

1950-1980
• 1960’s almost all tax went to Education Government Schools
• Baby Boom and decline in teachers within Catholic heritage fluctuated Catholic Schooling in the 1960’s
• 1970’s – Government primary and secondary schools would be prominent providers of education in Australia.
• 1980’s – producing wide range of government and non-government schools.
• End of WWII, parents were asking themselves the question, “Why pay for private school for our child to possibly get into university or a white collar job, when in government schools the same education, if FREE?” 1980 - Present - Schools become a market for consumers Students in different school sectors - 1979-2009 School numbers have been declining since the 1980s. Catholic schools are experiencing an overall increase, with independent schools the largest growing popularity. Better known as the 'Karmel Report' 'SCHOOLS IN AUSTRALIA' (1973) - December 1972 - Interim Committee for Australian Schools Commission
- Examine the position of government and non-government primary and secondary schools throughout Australia
- Greatly influenced how schools in Australia were funded; schools should be allocated on 'needs' basis rather than religious or ownership status.
- Many inequities in the system
- Although there are different sectors of schooling, they are all unified by the authority of the government in regulating their curriculum.
- Assures the unity amongst schools ‘The radical difference between the government and non-government schools sector can be reduced to the issue of inclusivity. Most government schools are open to all children and youth regardless of their background. Most non-government schools discriminate against children, youth and families on the basis of their ability to pay fees, practise a certain religion or meet a certain less definable standard – perhaps behavioral, or if they are poor, an inability to win a scholarship’. ACCORDING TO CRAIG CAMPBELL (2007) Or "Gonski Report" (2011) REVIEW OF FUNDING FOR SCHOOLING - Independent schools - fastest growing sector of schooling today.
- Up to $25,000 p/a for social exclusivity, extraordinary education, sporting opportunities etc.
- Although such advantages do not always translate into results!! - April 2010 - Julia Gillard develops a funding system which is transparent, fair, financially sustainable and effective in promoting excellent educational outcomes for all Australian students.

FINDINGS:
- Australia has significant gap between its highest and lowest performing students
- New funding arrangements, estimated $5 billion p/a, representing approx. 15% increase in funding for school education.
- Recommended most of the increased funding goes to government schools.

RECOMMENDATIONS:
- Schooling Resource Standard (SRS) should replace the current complex funding system.
- All government schools would be fully publicly funded for the amount of the SRS plus any applicable loadings.
- Non-government schools would be publicly funded for at least 20-25% of the SRS per student.
- The current system should change - both levels of government should be investing in more even proportions in the two education systems.
- Funding for the teaching of disadvantaged students should target flexible, evidence-based strategies.

HOW THIS AFFECTS SCHOOL CHOICE:
- Recommends the ways in which funds should be allocated to schools and therefore it may affect a parents decision as to where to send their child to school. Australian Government. (2009). Australian Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved September 1, 2012, from Australian Bureau of Statistics: http://www.abs.gov.au/

Connell, R., Campbell, C., Vickers, M., Welch, A., Foley, D., Bagnall, N., et al. (2010). Education, Change and Society. Melbourne, VIC, Australia: Oxford University Press.

Deming. J. D. (2012) Does school choice reduce crime? Education Next, 12(2), 71-76. REFERENCES David J. Fleming states that ‘… there is evidence that’s schools facing accountability pressures may be able to raise students test scores through methods that do not translate into long term improvements in skills or educational attainment, by engaging in test-prep activities or by cheating, for example. Second, even in the absence of such behaviors, the correlation between test-score gains and improvements in long-term outcomes has not been conclusively established’. MY SCHOOL... WITH A GRAIN OF SALT
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